November 2019 – The Story of Modern Music in 1,500+ Facts – Part IX

Introduction

Welcome to the end of the 20th Century. Not actually, of course, that was 20 years ago now. I mean, in the ‘Story of Modern Music’, having covered almost 350 years so far, welcomes you to the very end of the century that really transformed mankind’s potential and bestowed opportunities hitherto unforeseen and unthought‑of, including musically.

If you would like to (re)visit any of the first eight chapters of the story to‑date, you can do so here (each link opens a new browser tab):

I did think of trying to compress the last three decades into a single article and then thought better of it on the grounds that doing so might diminish the impact of the period within the overall picture. So, just for now, the millennial years will have to wait. The result is that the 1990s will have its own dedicated article, although it will be a slightly more diminutive read compared to the previous five decades/articles.

The Story of Modern Music Part IX 1990-1999

It is quite tricky to pinpoint exactly what the ‘90s meant to music devotees. It seemed to depend where you lived, your age and, perhaps, what socio‑economic ‘class’ you belonged to. Whether it was grunge, alternative, Britpop or dance music that floated your boat, there was a new and exciting scene to associate with and belong to. The psychological attachment to a musical style was important to many, especially young people who were looking for some structure to life while the old order of social and political systems seemed to be disintegrating around them. Although not quite as disobedient and defiant as previous musical archetypes, there was still an underlying seething resentment of ‘the man’, which various groups saw as attempting to control their chosen form of exuberant self‑expression. In a sense, they were tapping into the anger of the marginalised.

With previous decades, it was notable that births of familiar artists outnumbered deaths, while the ‘90s saw that trend beginning to reverse. Many future artists that may well achieve sustained fame may have been born in the ‘90s but not yet discovered, while the stars of previous eras are getting, let’s be honest, a bit long in the tooth.

Similarly, it is becoming difficult to distinguish what definitive musical gems will rise from the seeming homogeneity of releases to become revered as ‘classic’ in years to come. Arguably, the 1990s marked the last vestiges of milestone singles and albums. From then on, listening habits began to change fundamentally and that, in turn, changed the way we regard significance, at least through the traditional lens of sales figures.

Historical Context 1990-1999

Some commentators called the 1990s as the ‘best decade’, although that clearly depended on your circumstances and point of view! The dawn of the 1990s experienced widespread international political restructuring, especially in Eastern Europe following the end of the Cold War and the fracturing of the communist Eastern Bloc. The 1990s also saw the growth in environmental consciousness based on dire scientific predictions about global warming and climate change. Ironically, scaremongering about ‘greenhouse gases’ led to an expansion of ‘green’ industries in developed countries. Similarly, many commentators observed signs of societal dysfunctionality, leading to prescient dystopian novels such as ‘Generation X’ by Douglas Coupland (1991), ‘Random Acts Of Senseless Violence’ by Jack Womack (1992), and ‘Prozac Nation’ by Elizabeth Wurtzel (1994). The wealth gap between the haves and have‑nots was striking; a morally unjustifiable trend that would only worsen from the 1990s onwards. The increase in the pace of technological change in post‑industrial countries fuelled the migration towards ‘digitocracies’ and resulted in manufacturing being outsourced to low‑cost developing countries on a massive scale. A period of unprecedented growth in the use of the Internet fuelled unsustainable speculation in the value of high‑tech companies, known broadly as the ‘dot‑com bubble’, a phenomenon that was bound to burst, which it ultimately did. Many companies that had become reliant on IT during the decade were fearful of the impact of Y2K on computer systems that were not prepared for the turn of the millennium.

Year

Global Events

1990

Following the fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of soviet communism, East and West Germany were reunited as the Federal Republic of Germany.

 

Political internee and equal rights campaigner, Nelson Mandela was released from prison after serving 27 years. His return to freedom effectively marked the end of apartheid in South Africa.

 

The ground breaking American cult TV series Twin Peaks burst onto screens. Created by David Lynch and Mark Frost, and starring Kyle MacLachlan. It is considered a landmark in television drama.

 

NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope, named after American astronomer Edwin Hubble, was launched into low Earth orbit. The telescope was designed to look into deep space.

 

The first Middle East Gulf War started after Iraq invaded and annexed neighbouring Kuwait. A U.S.‑led coalition of 35 countries responded with Operation Desert Storm resulting in a coalition victory.

1991

Communist rule of the soviet USSR ended, resulting in a break up into a number of separate countries. The dismantling of the communist state effectively ended the 45‑year old Cold War between Russia and America.

 

British computer scientist and engineer, Tim Berners-Lee posted a short summary of the World Wide Web project, effectively launching the Internet, initially to research institutions and then to the general public.

1992

The infamous Los Angeles riots took place after 4 LAPD officers were acquitted of using excessive force in the arrest of African-American Rodney King the previous year. The incident had been videotaped and broadcast widely on TV, sparking renewed civil rights activism.

 

Founded in 1918, Central European country Yugoslavia descended into bitter civil war in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a devastating military conflict that lasted until 1995.

1993

Democrat politician Bill Clinton became the 42nd president of the U.S.A.

 

Another massive American cult TV series, The X-Files was first broadcast, created by Chris Carter and starring David Duchovny and Gillian Anderson.

 

The European Union (EU) succeeded the European Economic Community (EEC) when 12 countries signed the Maastricht Treaty, signalling a process of closer political and economic union.

1994

The trilateral North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) between the U.S.A., Canada and Mexico came into effect.

 

Anti-apartheid revolutionary and politician Nelson Mandela was elected as president of South Africa. He was the country’s first black head of state and the first to be elected in a fully representative democratic election.

 

The Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) declared a cease fire in Northern Ireland, paving the way for de‑armament and the subsequent peace process.

 

The 38Km (23.5mile) Channel Tunnel rail link beneath the English Channel from Folkestone in England to Calais in France was opened for business.

1995

The phenomenally successful multi‑national online auction and e‑commerce website eBay was launched, founded by entrepreneur Pierre Omidyar and based in San Jose, California.

 

Former professional American footballer O.J. Simpson was found not guilty of the double murder of former wife Nicole Simpson and her friend, Ronald Goldman. The criminal trial, held in Los Angeles, was widely broadcast on TV.

1996

Dolly the sheep became the first mammal to be cloned from an adult cell by using nuclear transfer in Scotland, UK. Dolly died in 2003 at the age of 6.

 

Heir to the British throne, Prince Charles was formally divorced from Diana, Princess of Wales in London.

1997

The British crown colony of Hong Kong was returned to Chinese sovereignty as a Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China after 156 years of British rule.

 

Diana, Princess of Wales, was killed in a car crash in the Pont de l’Alma tunnel in Paris, France at the age of 36. Her lover, Egyptian socialite Dodi Fayed, was also killed in the crash, sparking many conspiracy theories.

 

Albanian-Indian Roman Catholic nun and humanitarian missionary Mother Teresa died of a heart attack in Rome at the age of 87.

 

The Pacific Rim countries were hit by the major Asian Financial Crisis, starting in Thailand and spreading rapidly across east and southeast Asia, resulting in an international financial contagion that threatened a severe worldwide economic meltdown.

1998

The male virility drug Sildenafil, commonly known as Viagra, became available for use in America. It was originally discovered by pharmaceutical company Pfizer as a treatment for heart‑related chest pain.

 

The Internet search engine Google Search was launched. It is the most widely used search engine on the World Wide Web, with over 90% market share in 2019, handling more than 5 billion searches per day.

 

Multinational technology giant, Apple Inc. launched the highly successful iMac computer.

 

The multilateral Good Friday Agreement was signed in Belfast by the Republic of Ireland and Britain as part of the on-going Northern Ireland peace process.

 

The first module of the International Space Station (ISS) was launched into low Earth orbit. The ISS has served as a multinational microgravity research laboratory.

1999

The Euro became the official single currency for the majority of European Union (EU) countries, known commonly as the Eurozone. The security of the Euro is overseen by the European Central Bank in Frankfurt, Germany.

 

Politician, Vladimir Putin became President of Russian Federation, succeeding former president, Boris Yeltsin.

Musical Genre Development 1990-1999

The 1990s was a decade of sometimes dysfunctional music set against a background of major political change and social polarisation/alienation.

One phenomenon of the 1990s that isn’t genre‑specific but which built on the perennial success of pop music was the ‘boy band’ and its all‑girl equivalent. Artists included Backstreet Boys, Boyz II Men, *NSYNC, Take That, Westlife, All Saints, S Club 7, Spice Girls and Destiny’s Child. The record company ‘manufactured’ bands didn’t have it all their own way; solo pop music artists were also highly successful during the 1990s, including Britney Spears, Christina Aguilera, Justin Timberlake, Jessica Simpson, and Mandy Moore.

American heavy metal saw a resurgence including bands like Metallica, Megadeth, Slayer and Pantera achieving massive popularity. Meanwhile, British heavy metal was also prospering with NWOBHM bands such as Def Leppard, Judas Priest and Iron Maiden.

Hip‑hop became increasingly divisive, inciting gang warfare, gun violence and drug use, fuelling rivalry between east and west coast artists, and resulting in a number of high profile deaths including Tupac Shakur and the Notorious B.I.G.

The English ‘Manchester movement’ (or ‘Madchester’ as it was often called) was strong in the late 1980s and early ‘90s. The scene centred on venues like the Haçienda nightclub in Manchester, run by post‑punk band New Order and led by local bands such as Stone Roses, Happy Mondays and The Charlatans, although the latter were actually based in the west midlands. The music isn’t necessarily a genre per se, it was more of a loose social and cultural grouping that also encompassed fashion, art and media. The OTT craziness of the Manchester scene was faithfully represented in the film ’24 Hour Party People’, made in 2002, directed by Michael Winterbottom. Other artists associated with the vital hotpot based around the UK’s North West were The Verve, Inspiral Carpets and James, as well as Scottish band Primal Scream. The Manchester ‘baggy’ zeitgeist would be important in the growth of the drug‑fuelled rave scene later in the decade.

A fusing of genres led to the emergence of trip hop as a discrete genre that grew from its roots in Bristol, UK and was pioneered by artists like Massive Attack, Tricky, Portishead, Morcheeba and Sneaker Pimps. Sometimes referred to as ‘downtempo’, it is typified by taking electronica, hip‑hop, house, funk, dub, soul and psychedelia and creating something altogether different and fresh. While its roots were clearly experimental and atmospheric, trip hop was influential in that it led to other popular mainstream forms that became subsumed in the electronic dance craze (see below) of the 1990s and early 2000s, including breakbeat, bigbeat, drum ‘n’ bass, IDM, dubstep and acid jazz. Like the Manchester movement, trip hop was very much a UK‑led genre, which had little mainstream success in the U.S.

Like punk before it, alternative rock and its counterpart, experimental noise rock, is a musical genre that railed against the major record corporations that ran the music business and the mainstream pop and rock products they marketed. Independent producers and record labels that existed outside the studio system were very much part of an active underground movement, particularly in America, and this is where a number of bands came to public attention at the start of the 1990s. Compared to the mainstream, alternative artists found it relatively difficult to garner wide audience appeal, so word of mouth, radio and record releases were the way that the message got out. The alternative moniker is more of an umbrella term relating to artists’ status in the system, rather than having definitive identifiable genre characteristics. Notable alternative artists include Sonic Youth, Dinosaur Jr., Nine Inch Nails, Beck, Jane’s Addiction, Smashing Pumpkins and Pixies. Before they signed to a major label, R.E.M. were seen as alternative and this started a broadening of the definition that included other major artists such as Rage Against the Machine, Red Hot Chili Peppers, Foo Fighters, Queens Of The Stone Age, Radiohead and Nick Cave & The Bad Seeds. The start of the new millennium saw other alternative rock artists emerge including The Strokes, Interpol and The Rapture, extending and ensuring alternative rock’s destiny into the 21st Century.

Grunge is a specific genre of music that developed in the Pacific North West of the United States and more specifically its epicentre in and around Seattle in Washington State. Like alternative/noise rock, grunge was an underground movement centred on an independent record label, in this case, Sub Pop records based in Seattle. Grunge is influenced by punk, metal and alternative styles resulting in something altogether different from all of them. Grunge is characterised by slow, raw arrangements and a distinctly distorted lo‑fi sound. Compositions often followed a quiet‑loud‑quiet structure. Lyrics tended to be downbeat, melancholic, anti‑consumerist and often depraved with a focus on cultural alienation and social isolation. While all of the following rejected the term ‘grunge’ as defining their music, especially after signing to major labels, the early pioneers of Seattle’s grunge scene included Nirvana, Soundgarden, Pearl Jam, Mudhoney and Alice In Chains. The core grunge scene had largely fizzled out and diversified by the end of the 20th Century. A revival of the grunge ethic evolved in the 2010s to include artists like Courtney Barnett, Wolf Alice and Yuck.

Britpop was essentially an upbeat and positive British reaction to the dark and depressing American grunge scene. The music and its cultural background (nicknamed ‘Cool Britannia’) lasted approximately from 1993‑1997 before fizzling out. The major bands of the Britpop period included the ‘big four’; Oasis, Blur, Pulp and Suede. Collectively they expanded popularity to include other artists such as Supergrass, Cast, The Lightning Seeds, Sleeper and Elastica. The so‑called ‘Battle of Britpop’ between Oasis and Blur around 1995 was a media‑fuelled highlight catching the public’s imagination at the time. Britpop was important for influencing many quintessentially British bands that came along for the ride including Coldplay, Travis, Feeder, Stereophonics, Elbow, Snow Patrol and Keane. Further influences included Kaiser Chiefs and Arctic Monkeys in the 2000s.

Dance music (in this context, Electronic Dance Music – EDM) was a phenomenon that had its roots in the late 1980s but exploded in the early 1990s and lasted well into the 2000s. Dance music comprises largely electronically produced progressive dance music intended for use at nightclubs, festivals and (often illegal) raves by DJs who mixed and re‑mixed heavy beats through loud PA systems to audience rapture. In fact, many record labels and DJs became far more celebrated than the musical artists they played in their DJ sets. The predominant sub‑genres of dance music include house, techno, trance, drum ‘n’ bass and dubstep, although these only represent the tip of the dance sub‑genre iceberg. Dance beats generally comprise programmed synthesizers, samplers and drum machines to produce buoyant, insistent 4/4 dance rhythms. Dance music also became synonymous with recreational drug use such as ecstasy (MDMA) as well as party holiday destinations such as Ibiza and Mykonos islands in the Mediterranean Sea. Some of the famous artists of the dance scene include The Chemical Brothers, The Prodigy, Underworld, Orbital, KLF, The Shamen, The Future Sound of London, 808 State, Groove Armada, Aphex Twin, Basement Jaxx and Daft Punk. Later artists built on the foundation, include Pendulum, SBTRKT and Skream. DJs became pivotal in promoting the dance craze and became famous in their own right, including Carl Cox, Fatboy Slim, Pete Tong, Paul Van Dyk and Armin van Buuren. There are many sub‑genres of dance including acid house, IDM (Intelligent Dance Music), ambient, breakbeat, downtempo, jungle and UK garage, all ensuring that dance music remains up‑to‑date and relevant in the 21st Century.

Musical Facts 1990-1999

Day

Month

Year

Music Fact

23

January

1990

American guitarist and co-founder of southern rock band Lynyrd Skynyrd, Allen Collins died from pneumonia in Jacksonville, Florida at the age of 37.

8

February

1990

American country and rock & roll singer and songwriter, Del Shannon committed suicide as a result of depression at his home in California at the age of 55.

18

February

1990

English singer Freddie Mercury made his final public appearance with other members of pop/rock band Queen at the Brit Awards ceremony, held in London.

20

March

1990

English electronic/alternative rock band Depeche Mode released their career-defining classic 7th studio album, ‘Violator’ in the UK.

26

March

1990

Northern Irish blues/rock guitarist, Gary Moore released his classic studio album, ‘Still Got The Blues’.

3

April

1990

Highly acclaimed Grammy award winning American jazz singer Sarah Vaughan died from cancer at her home in Hidden Hills, California at the age of 66.

10

April

1990

American East Coast rappers Public Enemy released their politically charged 3rd studio album, ‘Fear of a Black Planet’.

16

April

1990

Indie rock giants, Nick Cave & The Bad Seeds released their 6th studio album, ‘The Good Son’.

26

June

1990

Prolific American alternative rock band Sonic Youth released their successful and significant 6th studio album, ‘Goo’.

24

July

1990

American heavy metal rock band Pantera released their classic 5th studio album ‘Cowboys From Hell’.

21

August

1990

Legendary American blues guitarist and singer B.B. King received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6771 Hollywood Boulevard.

27

August

1990

American blues guitarist, singer and songwriter, Stevie Ray Vaughan and four others died tragically in a helicopter crash in East Troy, Wisconsin at the age of 35.

31

August

1990

The funeral service of American blues/rock guitarist Stevie Ray Vaughan took place at Laurel Land Cemetery in Dallas, Texas.

3

September

1990

English heavy metal rock band Judas Priest released their 12th studio album, ‘Painkiller’.

21

September

1990

American thrash metal rock band Megadeth released their superb classic 4th studio album, ‘Rust In Peace’.

6

October

1990

American Heavy metal band Metallica began recording their massive studio album ‘Metallica’ (aka the ‘black album’) in Los Angeles, California.

9

October

1990

American thrash metal band, Slayer, released their mega 5th studio album, ‘Seasons In The Abyss’.

29

October

1990

Legendary award-winning American blues guitarist, singer and songwriter John Lee Hooker was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.

8

January

1991

English guitarist and songwriter, Steve Clark of hard rock band Def Leppard died of alcohol poisoning at his home in London, at the age of 30.

15

February

1991

Successful English pop singer, songwriter, guitarist, record producer, and actor Ed Sheeran was born in Halifax, West Yorkshire.

21

March

1991

Legendary American inventor and founder of Fender Electric Instrument Manufacturing Company, Leo Fender died from Parkinson’s disease in Fullerton, California at the age of 81.

8

April

1991

English trip-hop pioneers, Massive Attack, released their successful debut studio album, ‘Blue Lines’ in the UK, including the dance anthem, ‘Unfinished Sympathy’.

20

April

1991

English guitarist and front man of rock bands Small Faces and Humble Pie, Steve Marriott died in a house fire at his home in Essex at the age of 44.

23

April

1991

American guitarist, singer and songwriter with New York Dolls, Jonny Thunders died in mysterious circumstances in a hotel room in New Orleans, Louisiana at the age of 38.

30

July

1991

American heavy metal rock band Metallica released their massively successful single ‘Enter Sandman’.

12

August

1991

American heavy metal band Metallica released their career-defining 5th studio album, ‘Metallica’, often referred to as ‘the black album’.

27

August

1991

American alternative rock band from Seattle, the home of grunge rock pioneers, Pearl Jam burst onto the scene with the release of their astonishing platinum-selling debut studio album, ‘Ten’.

10

September

1991

American grunge rock pioneers Nirvana released their ‘90s anthem for disaffected youth, the near perfect hit single ‘Smells Like Teen Spirit’.

17

September

1991

American hard rock band, Guns n’ Roses, released their 3rd and 4th studio albums ‘Use Your Illusion’ parts I & II on the same day in the U.S.

23

September

1991

Scottish alternative rock band, Primal Scream released their massive 3rd studio album, ‘Screamadelica’.

24

September

1991

American grunge rock pioneers Nirvana released their career-defining classic 2nd studio album ‘Never Mind’ in the U.S. Well over 30 million copies have been sold so far.

24

September

1991

American alternative rock band Red Hot Chili Peppers released their 5th studio album, ‘Blood Sugar Sex Magik’, produced by Rick Rubin.

28

September

1991

American jazz trumpeter, Miles Davis died of complications from a stroke, pneumonia, and respiratory failure in a hospital in Santa Monica, California at the age of 65.

14

November

1991

Legendary American guitarist and singer Jimi Hendrix received a posthumous star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6627 Hollywood Boulevard.

18

November

1991

Massive Irish rock band, U2, released their storming 7th studio album, ‘Achtung Baby’ in the UK.

24

November

1991

English singer with pop/rock band Queen, Freddie Mercury died of pneumonia resulting from AIDS at his home in London at the age of 45.

15

January

1992

Rock band, The Jimi Hendrix Experience and country music legend, Johnny Cash were both inducted into the American Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.

29

January

1992

Influential American blues singer, songwriter, upright bass player and guitarist, Willie Dixon died of heart failure in Burbank, California at the age of 76.

21

February

1992

American heavy metal rock band Pantera released their classic 6th studio album ‘Vulgar Display Of Power’.

31

March

1992

English heavy metal rock band Def Leppard released their classic 5th studio album, ‘Adrenalize’.

20

April

1992

English indie rock icons, The Cure released their upbeat, commercial 10th studio album, ‘Wish’.

21

April

1992

American rap rockers, Beastie Boys, released their 3rd studio album, ‘Check Your Head’.

27

April

1992

Indie rock giants, Nick Cave & The Bad Seeds released their great 7th album, ‘Henry’s Dream’.

9

May

1992

American guitarist, singer and songwriter Bruce Springsteen made his live American TV network debut on ‘Saturday Night Live’ with show host Tom Hanks.

21

July

1992

American alternative rock band Sonic Youth released their cult, cool, classic 8th studio album, ‘Dirty’.

29

September

1992

American alternative rock band Alice In Chains released their sophomore studio album, ‘Dirt’.

6

October

1992

American rock band R.E.M. released their classic top‑selling studio album, ‘Automatic For The People’.

3

November

1992

American rock band Bon Jovi released their classic 5th studio album, ‘Keep The Faith’.

10

November

1992

American rock band Rage Against The Machine released their outstanding and career defining eponymous debut album ‘Rage Against The Machine’.

9

December

1992

Although not officially announced until January 1993, English bass guitarist Bill Wyman left The Rolling Stones.

21

December

1992

Legendary American blues guitarist, Albert King died from a heart attack at his home in Memphis Tennessee at the age of 69, just 2 days after his last concert.

6

January

1993

English bass guitarist Bill Wyman officially announced that he was leaving The Rolling Stones after more than 3 decades with the band.

23

March

1993

English alternative/electronic rock band Depeche Mode released their 8th studio album, ‘Songs Of Faith And Devotion’ in the UK.

20

April

1993

Emerging English alternative rock band Radiohead released their debut album, ‘Pablo Honey’ in the UK.

29

April

1993

English session guitarist, songwriter and producer who played extensively with David Bowie’s Spiders From Mars among others, Mick Ronson died from liver cancer in London at the age of 46.

23

August

1993

English new romantic band Duran Duran received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 1770 Vine Street.

21

September

1993

American alternative grunge rock band, Nirvana released their 3rd and final studio album, ‘In Utero’.

19

October

1993

American rock band Pearl Jam released their major 2nd studio album, ‘Vs.’.

9

November

1993

American East Coast rappers Wu-Tang Clan released their incendiary debut studio album, ‘Enter the Wu-Tang (36 Chambers)’.

19

November

1993

American grunge rock band Nirvana recorded their classic live acoustic concert and album, ‘MTV Unplugged In New York’ at Sony Music Studios.

23

November

1993

American rock band, Guns N’ Roses, released their 5th studio album, ‘The Spaghetti Incident?’

24

November

1993

Legendary American blues/rock guitarist, nicknamed The ‘Master of the Telecaster’ and ‘The Ice Man’, Albert Collins died from lung cancer at his home in Las Vegas, Nevada at the age of 61.

4

December

1993

Non-conformist American guitarist and composer extraordinaire, Frank Zappa died of prostate cancer at his home in Los Angeles at the age of 52.

1

February

1994

American pop punk rock band Green Day released their breakthrough 3rd studio album, ‘Dookie’.

1

March

1994

American grunge band Nirvana played their last ever live concert, interrupted by a power cut, in Munich, Germany.

1

March

1994

American alternative rock artist, Beck released his 3rd studio album, ‘Mellow Gold’.

8

March

1994

American alternative rock band, Nine Inch Nails released their career-peak 2nd studio album, ‘The Downward Spiral’.

5

April

1994

American singer, songwriter, guitarist and member of grunge rock band Nirvana, Kurt Cobain died from a self‑inflicted shotgun wound in Seattle, Washington at the age of 27.

19

April

1994

Alternative rock band Nick Cave & The Bad Seeds released their classic, career-defining 8th studio album, ‘Let Love In’.

26

April

1994

American country music legend Johnny Cash embarked on a whole new period of his career with the release of his classic studio album, ‘American Recordings’.

27

April

1994

The famous San Francisco music venue the Fillmore reopened its doors at 1805 Geary Boulevard. It had been closed since 1989 after being damaged in an earthquake.

23

May

1994

Influential American virtuoso jazz guitarist, Joe Pass died from liver cancer in Los Angeles, California at the age 65.

24

May

1994

American rappers, Beastie Boys, released their classic 4th studio album, ‘Ill Communication’ in the U.S.

14

July

1994

English rave band The Prodigy released their breakout 2nd studio album ‘Music for the Jilted Generation’.

22

August

1994

Pioneering English trip-hop band, Portishead released their ground breaking debut studio album, ‘Dummy’.

23

August

1994

Acclaimed American singer, songwriter and guitarist Jeff Buckley released his first and only studio album, ‘Grace’. A modern classic.

26

September

1994

English trip-hop outfit, Massive Attack, released their great sophomore studio album, ‘Protection’ in the UK.

4

October

1994

Versatile American ‘redneck jazz’ guitarist Danny Gatton died from self-inflicted gunshot wounds at his home in Newburg, Maryland at the age of 49.

1

November

1994

American grunge band Nirvana released their impressive award-winning live album, ‘MTV Unplugged in New York’, 6 months after Kurt Cobain’s death.

5

December

1994

English indie rock group The Stone Roses released their sophomore studio album, ‘Second Coming’.

13

March

1995

English alternative rock band Radiohead released their breakout 2nd studio album, ‘The Bends’ in the UK.

13

June

1995

Canadian singer, songwriter, musician and producer Alanis Morissette released her classic 3rd studio album, ‘Jagged Little Pill’.

14

June

1995

Renowned Irish blues/rock guitarist Rory Gallagher died of MRSA following liver failure caused by medication and alcohol in London at the age of 47.

9

August

1995

American guitarist Jerry Garcia of psychedelic rock band Grateful Dead died from a heart attack while at a rehabilitation centre in California at the age of 53.

2

September

1995

12 years after it was founded, America’s homage to contemporary music, the Rock And Roll Hall of Fame Museum opened on the shore of Lake Erie in Cleveland, Ohio and was celebrated with an all-star concert.

26

September

1995

American alternative rock band Sonic Youth released their great 10th studio album, ‘Washing Machine’.

2

October

1995

Australian artists, Nick Cave and Kylie Minogue released the haunting and elegiac duet single ‘Where the Wild Roses Grow’.

7

November

1995

American alternative rock band Alice In Chains released their eponymous 3rd studio album, ‘Alice In Chains’.

21

November

1995

American rock legend, Bruce Springsteen released his 11th studio album, ‘The Ghost of Tom Joad’.

17

January

1996

Music greats, David Bowie, Pink Floyd and Velvet Underground were all inducted into the American Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.

5

February

1996

Australian alternative rockers, Nick Cave & The Bad Seeds released their dark 9th studio album, ‘Murder Ballads’.

16

April

1996

American alternative rock group Rage Against The Machine released their sophomore studio album, ‘Evil Empire’.

17

May

1996

American blues, soul and funk singer, songwriter and guitarist, Johnny ‘Guitar’ Watson died of a heart attack after collapsing on stage in Yokohama, Japan at the age of 61.

15

June

1996

Legendary American jazz singer Ella Fitzgerald died of complications from diabetes in Beverley Hills, California, at the age of 79.

18

June

1996

American alternative rock artist, Beck, released his classic, top-selling 5th studio album, ‘Odelay’.

17

July

1996

English bass guitarist with R&B band The Animals and Jimi Hendrix’s manager, Chas Chandler died of an aneurism in Newcastle, at the age of 57.

10

September

1996

American alt-rock group R.E.M. released their classic 10th studio album, ‘New Adventures In Hi-Fi’.

13

September

1996

American rapper Tupac Shakur died of gunshot wounds following a drive-by shooting in Las Vegas, Nevada at the age of 25.

19

September

1996

American jazz guitarist George Benson received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 7055 Hollywood Boulevard.

31

October

1996

English/American guitarist Slash announced that he was leaving rock band Guns N’ Roses after a relationship breakdown with the group’s lead singer Axl Rose.

2

November

1996

Sublime American singer and guitarist, known as ‘the songbird’, Eva Cassidy died from cancer in Bowie, Maryland at the age of 33.

10

January

1997

American soul legend James Brown received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 1501 Vine Street.

12

February

1997

English singer and songwriter David Bowie received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 7021 Hollywood Boulevard.

4

March

1997

Alternative rock band, Nick Cave & The Bad Seeds released their classic 10th studio album, ‘The Boatman’s Call’.

9

March

1997

American rapper Christopher Wallace (a.k.a. The Notorious B.I.G.) was shot and killed in Los Angeles, California at the age of 24.

11

March

1997

English former member of The Beatles, Paul McCartney was knighted by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II at Buckingham Palace, London.

7

April

1997

British dance/electronica/big beat duo, The Chemical Brothers, released their massive studio album, ‘Dig Your Own Hole’ in the UK.

14

April

1997

English electronic/alternative rock band Depeche Mode released their classic 9th studio album, ‘Ultra’ in the UK.

29

May

1997

Renowned American singer, songwriter and guitarist Jeff Buckley died tragically from accidental drowning in Wolf River Harbor, Memphis, Tennessee at the age of 30.

4

June

1997

English bass guitarist and founder of rock band Small Faces, Ronnie Lane died from pneumonia resulting from multiple sclerosis in Trinidad, Colorado at the age of 51.

16

June

1997

English alternative rock band Radiohead released their top-selling 3rd studio album, ‘OK Computer’ in the UK.

30

June

1997

British rave band, Prodigy, released their massive zeitgeist‑defining 3rd studio album, ‘The Fat Of The Land’ in the UK.

22

August

1997

German industrial metal rock band Rammstein released their massive 2nd studio album, ‘Sensucht’ (translated crudely as ‘Desire’).

11

September

1997

American blues legend John Lee Hooker received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 7080 Hollywood Boulevard.

30

September

1997

English trip-hop band, Portishead released their eponymous sophomore album, ‘Portishead’ in the UK.

12

October

1997

American folk singer, songwriter and guitarist John Denver died tragically in plane crash in Monterey Bay, California, at the age of 53.

19

October

1997

American guitarist, best known for his work with Alice Cooper, Glen Buxton, died of complications from pneumonia in a hospital in Mason City, Iowa at the age of 49.

10

November

1997

Highly-regarded American session guitarist and one of the most recorded musicians in popular music history, Tommy Tedesco died of lung cancer in Northridge, California at the age of 67.

22

November

1997

Australian singer and front man of the rock band INXS, Michael Hutchence committed suicide in Sydney, Australia at the age of 37.

19

January

1998

American singer, songwriter and guitarist, Carl Perkins died from throat cancer in Jackson-Madison County Hospital, Tennessee, at the age of 65.

30

January

1998

English pop singer and songwriter Sir Elton John received his knighthood from Her Majesty The Queen.

19

February

1998

Legendary American jazz trumpeter Miles Davis received a posthumous star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 7060 Hollywood Boulevard.

20

April

1998

English trip-hop outfit, Massive Attack, released their classic 3rd studio album, ‘Mezzanine’ in the UK.

14

May

1998

American singer and actor, Frank Sinatra died from a heart attack at the Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, California at the age of 82.

6

July

1998

Legendary American singer, guitarist and actor, nicknamed the ‘King of the Cowboys’, Roy Rogers died of heart failure in Apple Valley, California at the age of 86.

25

July

1998

American virtuoso jazz guitarist, Tal Farlow died of oesophageal cancer in New York City at the age of 77.

17

August

1998

Mexican-American guitar legend Carlos Santana received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 7080 Hollywood Boulevard.

15

September

1998

American heavy metal rock artist, Marilyn Manson released his massively successful classic 3rd studio album, ‘Mechanical Animals’.

24

September

1998

American icon and rock ‘n’ roll legend Elvis Presley was inducted into the Country Music Hall of Fame.

1

October

1998

American guitarist, singer and songwriter and founder of rock band Creedence Clearwater Revival, John Fogerty received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 7000 Hollywood Boulevard.

2

October

1998

American country & western ‘singing cowboy’ Gene Autry died of lymphoma at his home in Studio City, California at the age of 91.

6

October

1998

American rock band Queens Of The Stone Age (QOTSA) released their self-titled debut album, ‘Queens Of The Stone Age’.

13

October

1998

The Crossroads Centre in Antigua, founded by English blues/rock guitarist and singer Eric Clapton, opened its doors to help clients with drug and alcohol rehabilitation.

3

November

1998

American alternative rock singer, songwriter, musician and producer, Beck, released his 6th studio album, ‘Mutations’, the follow up to the massive ‘Odelay’.

29

November

1998

American jazz pioneer of the 7-string guitar, George Van Eps, died of pneumonia in Newport Beach, California at the age of 85.

25

December

1998

English pop/rock band, The Beatles, received a star on the Hollywood Walk Of Fame at 7080 Hollywood Boulevard.

30

December

1998

American surf rock band The Beach Boys received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 1500 Vine Street.

15

March

1999

Legendary American singer and songwriter Bruce Springsteen was inducted into the American Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.

28

April

1999

American rock band Tom Petty & The Heartbreakers received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 7018 Hollywood Boulevard.

17

May

1999

Award-winning American singer, songwriter, guitarist, electronica musician and producer Moby released his mega-successful 5th studio album, ‘Play’.

15

June

1999

After a long break, American Latin rock band Santana released their highly successful 17th studio album, ‘Supernatural’.

16

June

1999

English rock singer, drummer and member of progressive rock band Genesis, Phil Collins received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6834 Hollywood Boulevard.

24

June

1999

English blues/rock guitarist, Eric Clapton auctioned many of his guitars in New York City. The proceeds were used in support of the Crossroads Centre he founded in Antigua as a residential treatment centre for alcohol and chemical dependencies.

11

August

1999

American rock band KISS received a star on the Hollywood Walk Of Fame at 7080 Hollywood Boulevard.

7

September

1999

American virtuoso guitarist, singer, songwriter and producer Steve Vai released his astonishing 5th studio album, ‘The Ultra Zone’.

2

November

1999

American alternative rock band Rage Against The Machine released their 3rd studio album, ‘The Battle Of Los Angeles’ in the UK.

23

November

1999

American alternative rock artist, Beck, released his adventurous 7th studio album, ‘Midnite Vultures’.

17

December

1999

American smooth jazz, funk and soul saxophonist, Grover Washington Jr. died of a heart attack in New York City at the age of 56.

26

December

1999

Highly acclaimed American soul singer, songwriter, guitarist and producer, Curtis Mayfield, died from complications of diabetes in a hospital in Roswell, Georgia at the age of 57.

Tailpiece

The 1990s was certainly a strange decade both musically and culturally, notably as a segue to the 21st Century. While it seems very recent, it is actually receding into long‑term memory, thereby affecting our perceptions of what it meant to us at the time. Still to come, the new millennium is temptingly beckoning and it will prove as frustrating as it was liberating.

Now… we have a minor problemo. I was hoping to conclude this series of articles conveniently in December at the very end of the current decade. However, there are still one, two or maybe even three articles still to write before we are done. December 2019’s article will therefore, ceteris paribus, interrupt the sequence in that it will cover a summary of 2019 through the eyes of CRAVE Guitars, meaning that the ‘History of Modern Music’ will resume early in 2020, all being well. This series has been a gargantuan task thus far, so perhaps a short break in proceedings won’t do any harm. Heaven knows what will follow after it has been concluded though. Looking into the crystal ball of the future is largely futile, so I’ll have to start thinking hard about the ‘next big thing’ very soon. However, that can wait for next year/decade. Until next time…

CRAVE Guitars’ ‘Quote of the Month’: “It is a moral travesty that, if you have got everything, you think you can get away with anything.”

© 2019 CRAVE Guitars – Love Vintage Guitars.

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August 2019 – The Story of Modern Music in 1,500+ Facts – Part VI

Introduction

So, here we are again, good people. Like the immortal rose‑tinted glasses of the ‘Summer of ‘69’, 50 years on, the summer 2019 is beginning to degrade and enter the memory banks while the evenings are inexorably drawing in again. Perhaps it is poignant to recount the past and reflect a little on how we got to where we are now.

If you would like to (re)visit any or all of the first five parts (and over 300 years) of the story to‑date, you can do so here (each link opens a new browser tab):

In the last article, the world of music transformed seemingly overnight with the rise of rock ‘n’ roll acting as a significant catalyst for American and British youth culture in the 1950s. Of course, it wasn’t quite like that in reality – so many different ingredients came together to create an irresistible phenomenon. If the 1950s wasn’t enough to challenge the traditionalists, things were about to get a whole lot more liberal and lively in the 1960s. Even greater social change compounded the consternation of the older, and typically more old-fashioned, conservative generation.

The Story of Modern Music Part VI 1960-1969

While rock ‘n’ roll now seems to be a permanent fixture in the minds of modern music lovers, in its purest form, it didn’t last that long before it became diluted and music evolution moved on rapidly. However, the influence of rock ‘n’ roll was pervasive, acting as a major stimulus to all other sorts of genre developments. The 1960s stood alone from previous and subsequent decades in terms of political, cultural, economic, technological climate and this was reflected in the distinctive music emerging over the same period. For many readers, the 1960s is now within ‘living memory’ – it is, just about, for me. Up to now, much of the chronology will be history, picked up second hand from written or pictorial records. From here on in, readers may well have some experience of these events for real. For a younger audience, be patient, we’ll get to your era soon. There is a lot to get through this month, so it focuses only on one decade with a few photos again.

Historical Context 1960-1969

Although fundamental human equality was still a pipedream for many in the west, freedom of expression and individual liberties probably characterised the ‘Swinging Sixties’ more than anything else, including the Sexual Revolution and civil rights movements. People felt able to say and do things that were unthinkable in previous decades. People were also able to protest against what they felt were moral injustices. Many families experienced benefits from improving economic prosperity and technological advancement. The Cold War and the space race dominated international relations, particularly between the capitalist ‘west’ and communist ‘east’. The latter part of the 1960s saw symbols of the peace & love movement, gaudy fashion and hippie ‘flower power’, all kaleidoscopically prevalent. If there was a decade that could live up to the description of ‘sex, drugs and rock ‘n’ roll’, the 1960s would be it.

Year

Global Events

1960

America launched the first satellite navigation geo‑positioning system into space, called Transit for use by the U.S. Navy, entering operational service in 1964.

 

The oral contraceptive pill was approved for use by married women in America followed by Britain in 1961.

 

The classic great American novel, ‘To Kill A Mockingbird’, written by author Harper Lee was published.

 

The classic and ground breaking psychological horror film, ‘Psycho’, directed by Alfred Hitchcock and starring Anthony Perkins was released.

1961

Democrat politician John F. Kennedy became the 35th President of the U.S.A. JFK’s election heralded a new wave of hope and optimism set against the background of the Cold War.

 

The American‑backed military invasion of the Bay of Pigs in Cuba intended to topple Fidel Castro failed, thereby escalating political tensions.

 

The infamous Berlin wall separating east and west Germany was constructed. It remained until 1989 when it was symbolically destroyed by the German people.

 

Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first man in space aboard the Soviet Vostok 1 capsule.

 

Astronaut Alan Shepard became the first American to go into space aboard a Mercury spacecraft.

1962

The Cuban Missile Crisis between United States and the Soviet Union narrowly avoided escalation into a full‑scale nuclear world war.

 

American actress and cultural icon Marilyn Monroe died of a drug overdose at the age of 36. Her death was ruled controversially as probable suicide.

 

Marvel’s fictional super hero Spider‑Man made his first comic book appearance.

 

The first satellite television transmission and telephone calls took place over the Atlantic ocean from Europe to North America, relayed by the American Telstar communication satellite.

1963

American president John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas. Former U.S. Marine, Lee Harvey Oswald was accused of the murder only to be killed while in police custody by local night club owner, Jack Ruby, fuelling many conspiracy theories.

 

Democrat politician Lyndon B. Johnson became 36th President of the U.S.A. following the assassination of John F. Kennedy.

 

The infamous Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary in San Francisco Bay was closed as a prison. The island is now a museum and tourist attraction run by the U.S. National Park Service.

1964

Sidney Poitier became the first African American actor to win an Academy Award (Oscar) for his role in the film ‘Lilies of the Field’.

 

South African anti‑apartheid campaigner Nelson Mandela was jailed, having been charged with sabotage and conspiracy to overthrow the government.

1965

America joined the Vietnam War by sending U.S. Marines into battle supporting the South Vietnamese against the Chinese‑backed North Vietnamese National Liberation Front (the Viet Cong).

 

American space missions took a significant step forward with the launch of manned Gemini low Earth orbiting capsules. The successful programme ended in 1966.

 

Soviet cosmonaut Alexei Leonov became the first person to make a spacewalk, lasting 12 minutes after exiting the Voskhod 2 spacecraft.

 

Renowned British Fashion designer Mary Quant launched the iconic mini skirt in London, encouraging young women to dress to please themselves.

1966

The Chinese Cultural Revolution began, led by Chairman Mao Zedong, intended to preserve Chinese Communism and purge capitalism from its society. The oppressive campaign lasted until Mao’s death in 1976.

 

The Black Panther Party for Self-Defense was founded in Oakland, California in 1966, intended to patrol African American neighbourhoods and protect residents from acts of police brutality. It ceased operation in 1982.

 

The classic, ground breaking science fiction TV series Star Trek was first broadcast, created by American producer and screenwriter, Gene Rodenberry.

1967

British sailor Sir Francis Chichester became the first person to circumnavigate single‑handedly around the globe in his yacht the Gypsy Moth IV.

 

Argentinian Marxist revolutionary and guerrilla leader Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara, a major figure in the Cuban Revolution, was executed while in military detention in Bolivia at the age of 39. His death secured his status as a political martyr and counter‑culture rebel icon.

 

The first successful human heart transplant took place, carried out by Dr Christiaan Barnard in South Africa.

 

The first American Football Super Bowl took place between the Kansas City Chiefs and the Green Bay Packers. Green Bay won.

 

1968

Russia brutally crushed the Prague Spring uprising in Czechoslovakia, forcing the country to subordinate its national interests to those of the ‘Eastern Bloc’.

 

The classic science fiction film, ‘2001: A Space Odyssey’ was released, directed by Stanley Kubrick.

 

American civil rights campaigner Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated by lifelong criminal James Earl Ray in Memphis, Tennessee.

 

The ambitious American Apollo space program got underway with the first manned flight aboard Apollo 7. The program ended in 1972 with Apollo 17.

1969

Supersonic passenger flight became possible with the introduction of the Anglo‑French Concorde airliner.

 

The cult classic counter-culture movie ‘Easy Rider’ was released, starring Dennis Hopper (also directing) and Peter Fonda.

 

American Senator Ted Kennedy  drove his car off a bridge on Chappaquiddick Island in Massachusetts, killing 28‑year old Mary Jo Kopechne, a former aide to Senator Bobby Kennedy.

 

Police raided the Stonewall Inn in New York City, sparking demonstrations and the start of the gay civil rights movement in the United States.

 

Followers of the cult leader Charles Manson carried out a series of 9 brutal murders including that of actress Sharon Tate.

 

American manned space mission Apollo 11 successfully landed on the Moon. Astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin became the first humans to walk on the Moon’s surface, with Armstrong proclaiming, “That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind”.

 

Republican politician Richard Nixon was elected as the 37th U.S. president. Infamously, he remains the only American President to have resigned from office, following the Watergate scandal.

 

The United Kingdom abolished the death penalty substituting it with a mandatory sentence of life imprisonment.

Musical Genre Development 1960-1969

The ‘Swinging Sixties’ were particularly important and memorable for music in America and Europe. The musical revolution that began with rock ‘n’ roll in the previous decade rapidly morphed and diversified on both sides of the Atlantic. By the end of the decade, rock and pop were firmly established as major commercial genres that continue to flourish and adapt to the current day. The 1960s was also a time in which large outdoor music festivals flourished, especially towards the end of the decade, with major events like Newport, Monterey and Woodstock in America and Hyde Park and the Isle of Wight in the UK. In addition, the 1960s saw the introduction of the music compact cassette, which made music not only cheaper but also more portable. As the famous quote, probably attributed to American comedian Charles Fleischer (1950-) goes, ‘if you remember the ‘60s, you weren’t really there’. If that is the case, this article might just serve as a timely reminder.

R&B, gospel, and jazz started to evolve into urban African American soul music, made popular by record companies specialising in the genre. One of these labels was Motown in Detroit, Michigan featuring artists such as Diana Ross & the Supremes, The Four Tops, and Smokey Robinson & the Miracles. Another record label that was hugely influential at the time was Stax Records based in Memphis, Tennessee which was significant for its racially integrated production of southern soul and blues music, including house band Booker T & the M.G.’s and artists like Otis Redding. Atlantic Records which began in New York also promoted soul artists such as Aretha Franklin, Ray Charles and Wilson Pickett. Some other popular soul and R&B artists of the 1960s include The Temptations, Stevie Wonder, Marvin Gaye, The Isley Brothers and the Jackson Five. Racial segregation was a major hurdle for aspiring black musicians and soul is often seen as being closely associated with the American civil rights movement.

Surf music originated in the early 1960s on the west coast of America, particularly around the surfing culture of Orange County in southern California. It was influenced by instrumental rock ‘n’ roll artists like Link Wray, The Ventures and Duane Eddy. Surf is, however, distinct from rock ‘n’ roll and was important in the formation of modern rock music. Surf music tended to fall either into instrumental tunes performed by the likes of Dick Dale & The Deltones or harmonised vocal songs characterised by The Beach Boys. The musical style is heavily based around reverb‑drenched electric guitar sounds often making use of a guitar’s vibrato and the amplifier’s tremolo effect. Lyrics focused on, unsurprisingly, surfing, girls, cars and sunny west coast beach culture. Surf was relatively short‑lived and was taken over by many other American and European genres from the mid‑1960s onwards.

Up to the early 1960s, British artists were in the shadow of American acts and were often playing catch‑up. While not a genre in its own right, the so‑called ‘British Invasion’ began around 1963 with many artists from Britain becoming massively popular in the United States. UK artists sometimes took American songs and gave them a British sound. Perhaps the most significant phenomenon was coined ‘Beatlemania’, when Merseybeat pop group The Beatles broke onto the American music scene circa 1963 and spearheaded the export of UK music to the USA. Other British artists included The Rolling Stones, The Animals, Cream, The Hollies and The Who. By the end of the decade American artists had largely regained their homeland audiences. Various attempts to recreate the phenomenon have only been partially successful, for instance Britpop in the 1990s with artists like Oasis, the Spice Girls and Robbie Williams.

By the mid‑1960s, there was a strong revival of folk music, notable especially for songs with a social and moral conscience, widely articulating the feelings and messages of the various turbulent protest movements of the time. Songs encompassed issues such as poverty, class, the Vietnam War, social injustice and racial segregation. Songs also began to exhibit a stronger leaning towards the emerging rock oriented music scene. Perhaps the most significant artist of the period was Bob Dylan who controversially and ultimately successfully fused acoustic folk and electric rock genres.

Pop music is a diverse genre that attracts a lot of debate. It developed not from the broader traditional popular music of previous decades but from rock ‘n’ roll in the late 1950s and ‘pop’ became a commonly used term since the 1960s to describe non‑classical highly commercial and easily accessible youth‑oriented music. From about 1967, there was a clear divergence between rock music and pop music. Rock became harder edged and played by ‘real’ musicians recording albums while pop was refined into short catchy radio friendly ‘singles’ that were largely industry driven, highly produced, easily packaged, widely marketable and hugely profitable. Musically and lyrically, pop songs are generally uncontroversial and tended not to challenge the listener to any significant degree. Pop artists would sometimes appear and disappear overnight, as it was the songs, sales and chart position that mattered more to the record companies, rather than the performer. The term ‘one‑hit‑wonder’ is often associated with the throwaway appeal of pop music consumption. Conversely, the corporations assert that profits enable investment in new artists. Successful pop artists from the 1960s included The Monkees, The Shadows, Herman’s Hermits, The Dave Clark Five, The Everly Brothers, The Bee Gees and The Lovin’ Spoonful. Pop music continues to evolve and has had a number of peaks since the 1960s including in the early 1980s with artists like Michael Jackson and Madonna and late 2000s including the likes of P!nk, Lady Gaga and Katy Perry. Pop therefore represents considerable mainstream economic business to the industry.

Experimental psychedelic rock was popular during the late 1960s and is often associated with the hippie/flower power counterculture. It is also associated with the widespread use of cannabis and manufactured hallucinogenic drugs such as LSD (acid). Song lyrics frequently referenced drugs and altered/elevated states of consciousness. Songs were often long and comprised extended instrumental extemporisation and improvisation (often called jamming). Musicians regularly used esoteric instruments like the sitar, tabla vibraphone and organ, much of it influenced by Asian, Indian and oriental music. Psychedelic rock and folk rock became closely associated with simple messages of peace and love that began with 1967’s ‘Summer of Love’ phenomenon and reached a climax at the Woodstock festival in 1969. Many rock bands of the period stretched the boundaries of the genre, including the Grateful Dead, The Velvet Underground, Janis Joplin, The Beatles, The Doors, The Jimi Hendrix Experience, Jefferson Airplane, Cream, The Moody Blues, Gong, Hawkwind and early Pink Floyd.

Ska is a genre that originated in Jamaica in the late 1950s and came to popular prominence in the early 1960s. Ska was influenced by Caribbean calypso and Latin music combined with American jazz and R&B. Ska developed heavy basslines and offbeat accents producing a distinctive up‑tempo dance rhythm. Jamaican producers began recording ska on their own labels which were then played on DJ sound systems. Ska became popular not only in Jamaica but also in Britain, being associated with the decade’s mod and skinhead sub‑cultures. Importantly, ska was the precursor to rocksteady and reggae. Key players in the genre were Prince Buster, Clement ‘Coxsone’ Dodd and Duke Reid. Ska experienced a major revival in Britain in the late 1970s and early 1980s on the back of the punk rock boom through Two Tone Records and artists like The Specials, Madness, Bad Manners, The Selecter, and The Beat.

Classic rock music, or simply just rock, really came into its own as a separate broad genre during the 1960s deriving from America and the UK. Rock’s origins stem from rock ‘n’ roll, blues, folk, country and R&B. Experimentation with sound and composition mean that there are many, many sub‑genres and crossover styles of rock music. Rock is predominantly performed by a band with vocals, one or more electric guitars, bass and drums played in an un‑syncopated 4/4 rhythm and comprising a verse and chorus structure. Rock became distinct for increasing use of volume and distorted electric guitar sounds. Classic rock was the starting point for the various offshoots that followed including hard rock, psychedelic rock, blues rock, folk rock, progressive/contemporary rock, heavy metal, glam rock, soft rock, AOR, roots rock, jazz rock, punk rock, new wave, post‑punk, grunge, alternative rock and indie. Many of these styles of rock music remain popular to the current day. Culturally, rock music has often been connected with political activism as well as changes in social attitudes to race, sex, crime and drug use, and is often seen as an expression of young people’s rebellious rejection of adult uniformity and conformity. Artists associated with classic rock include The Kinks, Small Faces, Free, Bad Company and Jeff Beck.

Hard rock split from pop and rock during the latter half of the 1960s. As rock music was beginning to define itself throughout the 1960s, an offshoot rapidly developed that had its own distinctive sound. Hard rock took commercial rock and gave it a heavier and more aggressive style. Hard rock vocals tended to be in the higher registers and were often raspy and guttural. The hard-edged, loud, distorted guitar‑heavy music was influenced by blues, rock and garage. Hard rock could often be identified by catchy ‘power chord’ riffs and impressive lead guitar solos. Hard rock quickly became associated with excluded and defiant young people and the lyrics frequently had a distinctly anti‑authoritarian slant. This sometimes hostile approach to the mainstream was characterised by some acts destroying their instruments on stage, for instance by Pete Townsend of The Who and Jimi Hendrix. The hedonistic rock lifestyle went hand in hand with the music, resulting in musicians reportedly partying as hard as they played, regularly destroying property. Many rock artists developed drug and alcohol dependencies, which resulted in some high profile deaths, including Jim Morrison and Jimi Hendrix. Notable hard rock bands from the 1960s include The Who, Deep Purple, Led Zeppelin, Steppenwolf and The Rolling Stones and later in the early 1970s by bands like Rainbow, Whitesnake, Aerosmith, Kiss, Queen, AC/DC, Alice Cooper and Van Halen.

Musical Facts 1960-1969

Michael Stipe (REM)

Day

Month

Year

Music Fact

4

January

1960

American singer, songwriter, producer, artist and former frontman of indie rock band R.E.M. Michael Stipe was born in Decatur, Georgia.

22

January

1960

Australian singer, songwriter and co-founder of rock band INXS, Michael Hutchence was born in Sydney, New South Wales.

9

February

1960

Legendary American singer Elvis Presley received his first star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6777 Hollywood Boulevard.

3

March

1960

American rock ‘n’ roll singer and now soldier, Sargent Elvis Presley set foot in the UK for the first and only (confirmed) time while his forces plane was refuelled at Prestwick Airport in Ayrshire, Scotland.

13

March

1960

British/Irish bass guitarist, best known as a member of rock band U2, Adam Clayton was born in Chinnor, Oxfordshire, England.

31

March

1960

American blues rock guitarist, Popa Chubby (a.k.a. Theodore ‘Ted’ Horowitz) was born in The Bronx, New York City.

4

April

1960

Legendary American rock ‘n’ roll singer Elvis Presley recorded his classic hit single, ‘Are You Lonesome Tonight?’ at RCA studios in Nashville, Tennessee.

6

April

1960

American guitarist and member of blues/rock groups The Allman Brothers Band, Gov’t Mule and The Dead, Warren Haynes was born in Asheville, North Carolina.

17

April

1960

American rock ‘n’ roll singer and guitarist Eddie Cochran died tragically following a car accident in Wiltshire, UK, at the age of just 21.

23

April

1960

English guitarist, singer, songwriter and key member of heavy rock band Def Leppard, Steve Clark (1960-1991, 30) was born in Hillsborough, Sheffield.

10

May

1960

Irish singer and songwriter Paul Hewson, a.k.a. Bono, front man of massive rock band U2 was born in Dublin.

1

June

1960

Great English bass guitarist with indie rock icons The Cure, Simon Gallup was born in Duxhurst, Surrey.

6

June

1960

American virtuoso rock guitarist, singer, songwriter and producer, Steve Vai was born in New York.

20

June

1960

English bass guitarist and co-founder of new romantic band Duran Duran, John Taylor was born in Solihull, Warwickshire.

27

October

1960

American soul singer Ben E. King recorded his first songs as a solo artist after leaving The Drifters, the classics, ‘Spanish Harlem’ and ‘Stand By Me’.

7

November

1960

American guitarist and songwriter with rock band KISS from 2002, Tommy Thayer, nicknamed ‘The Spaceman’ was born in Portland, Oregon.

8

February

1961

After changing their name from The Quarrymen, English pop band The Beatles made their debut appearance at Liverpool’s Cavern Club, their first of 292 performances at the venue.

7

May

1961

Welsh guitarist and long-term member of hard rock band Motörhead, Phil Campbell was born in Pontypridd.

12

May

1961

English guitarist, songwriter and member of post-punk band, The Cult, Billy Duffy was born in Manchester.

29

May

1961

Award-winning American singer, songwriter and guitarist, Melissa Etheridge was born in Leavenworth, Kansas.

3

June

1961

English guitarist and founding member of psychedelic rock bands Ozric Tentacles and Nodens Ictus, Ed Wynne was born in London.

10

June

1961

American bass guitarist, singer and songwriter, former member of alternative rock band Pixies and currently fronting The Breeders with her twin sister, Kim Deal was born in Dayton, Ohio.

10

June

1961

American guitarist and member of The Breeders with her twin sister, Kelley Deal was born in Dayton, Ohio.

23

July

1961

Multi-talented award-winning English singer, songwriter, guitarist, producer, DJ and co-founder of Depeche Mode, Martin Gore was born in Dagenham, Essex.

8

August

1961

Irish guitarist and songwriter with rock band U2, The Edge (a.k.a. David Evans) was born in Barking, Essex, England to Welsh parents.

13

September

1961

American guitarist, singer, songwriter and co-founder of thrash metal rock band Megadeth, Dave Mustaine was born in La Mesa, California.

16

September

1961

English guitarist, singer and songwriter with indie rock band My Bloody Valentine, Bilinda Butcher was born in London.

3

October

1961

The Country Music Hall of Fame in Nashville, Tennessee welcomed its first inductees, Jimmie Rodgers, Fred Rose and Hank Williams.

10

October

1961

English bass guitarist and actor best known as member of new wave/pop group Spandau Ballet, Martin Kemp was born in London.

10

February

1962

American bass guitarist and songwriter, best known as a member of heavy rock band Metallica, Cliff Burton (1962-1986, 24) was born in California.

11

February

1962

Talented American singer, songwriter and multi-instrumentalist, including guitar, bass and drums, Sheryl Crow was born in Kennett, Missouri.

2

March

1962

American singer, songwriter, founder and front man of the rock band that bears his name, Jon Bon Jovi was born in Perth Amboy, New Jersey.

8

April

1962

American guitarist, co-founder and ex-member of rock band Guns N’ Roses, Izzy Stradlin (a.k.a. Jeffrey Dean Isbell) was born in Lafayette, Indiana.

2

August

1962

American folk singer, songwriter and guitarist Robert Allen Zimmerman formally changed his name to… the one and only Bob Dylan.

25

August

1962

Northern Irish guitarist who has been a member of hard rock bands Def Leppard, Dio and Whitesnake, Vivian Campbell was born in Belfast, County Antrim.

11

October

1962

English pop group The Beatles had their song ‘Love Me Do’ reach no. 4 in the UK singles chart, their first record to do so.

16

October

1962

Australian/American bass guitarist and co-founder of rock band, Red Hot Chili Peppers, Michael Balzary (a.k.a. Flea) was born in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

17

October

1962

English newcomers, The Beatles made their first regional television appearance playing 2 songs live on Granada’s ‘People And Places’ show.

18

November

1962

Great American guitarist, songwriter and long-time member of metal rock band Metallica, Kirk Hammett was born in San Francisco, California.

24

November

1962

English guitarist and songwriter with the Stone Roses and The Seahorses, John Squire was born in Altrincham, Cheshire.

8

December

1962

American guitarist, well known for his 10-year stint with heavy metal band Megadeth, Marty Friedman was born in Washington D.C.

9

January

1963

English drummer, Charlie Watts joined the rock band The Rolling Stones, starting a long-term membership of the group.

19

January

1963

English pop/rock band, The Beatles made their first recorded UK TV appearance on the ITV/ABC show, ‘Thank Your Lucky Stars’.

2

February

1963

American singer, songwriter and guitarist, the ‘songbird’, Eva Cassidy (1963-1996, 33) was born in Washington D.C.

22

March

1963

Emerging English pop group The Beatles released their debut studio album ‘Please Please Me’ in the UK. Merseybeat had well and truly arrived.

27

May

1963

American folk singer, songwriter and guitarist, Bob Dylan released his classic 2nd studio album, ‘The Freewheelin’ Bob Dylan’.

30

June

1963

Impressive, prolific Swedish virtuoso neoclassical heavy rock guitarist Yngwie Malmsteen was born in Stockholm.

3

August

1963

American guitarist, singer, songwriter and co-founder of heavy metal rock band Metallica, James Hetfield was born in Downey, California.

9

August

1963

Popular British weekly pop music television show, ‘Ready Steady Go!’ was first broadcast by ITV. The show ran until December 1966.

9

August

1963

Multi-award-winning American soul/R&B singer and actress, Whitney Houston was born in Newark, New Jersey.

30

August

1963

Dutch technology company Philips introduced the Compact Cassette to Europe at the Berlin Radio Show, followed by an American launch in November the same year.

13

October

1963

Emerging English pop band The Beatles made their first major TV appearance on ITV’s famous variety show, ‘Sunday Night At The London Palladium’.

31

October

1963

English guitarist, singer, songwriter, ex-member of post‑punk rock band The Smiths, as well as a successful solo artist and collaborator, Johnny Marr was born in Manchester.

31

December

1963

American guitarist, singer and founding member of thrash metal rock band Anthrax, Scott Ian was born in Queens, New York.

1

January

1964

The BBC’s popular chart music television programme ‘Top Of The Pops’ (TOTP) was first broadcast in the UK. The show ran for over 42 years until July 2006.

13

January

1964

American folk singer Bob Dylan released his 3rd studio album ‘The Times They Are A-Changin’’, which became a political anthem for social change in 1960s America.

5

February

1964

American bass player and ex-member of rock bands, Guns N’ Roses, Velvet Revolver, Loaded and Jane’s Addiction, Duff McKagan was born in Seattle, Washington state.

7

February

1964

‘Beatlemania’ struck America when The Beatles landed at New York’s JFK Airport on their first visit to the USA.

9

February

1964

‘Beatlemania’ struck again when English pop band The Beatles made their American TV debut on ‘The Ed Sullivan Show’.

11

February

1964

English pop band The Beatles made their debut live performance in America at the Washington Coliseum in front of 8,000 screaming fans.

26

May

1964

American rock guitarist, singer, songwriter, producer and actor, Lenny Kravitz was born in New York City.

30

May

1964

Great American guitarist with rock bands Rage Against The Machine and Audioslave, as well as several solo projects, Tom Morello was born in New York.

3

June

1964

Great American guitarist with thrash metal rock band Slayer, the formidable Kerry King was born in Los Angeles, California.

19

June

1964

English rock band, The Animals, released their seminal hit single, ‘House Of The Rising Sun’.

10

July

1964

English pop/rock group The Beatles released their 6th studio album ‘A Hard Day’s Night’ in the UK.

24

July

1964

The Newport Folk Festival in Rhode Island, U.S.A. descended into controversy when Bob Dylan performed an electric rather than acoustic set.

13

November

1964

English rock band The Rolling Stones released their cover of the classic Willie Dixon blues song, ‘Little Red Rooster’ as a single in the UK.

23

December

1964

American guitarist, singer, songwriter and long-time member of rock band Pearl Jam, Eddie Vedder was born in Evanston, Illinois.

20

January

1965

The self-proclaimed ‘father of rock ‘n’ roll’, legendary American DJ Alan Freed died from uraemia and cirrhosis in hospital in Palm Springs, California at the age of 43.

28

January

1965

Emerging English rock band, The Who made their debut television appearance in the UK on the ITV music show ‘Ready Steady Go!’

14

February

1965

Australian/French multi-instrumentalist, including guitar, known for working with alternative rock bands Nick Cave & The Bad Seeds and Grinderman, Warren Ellis was born in Ballarat, Victoria, Australia.

8

March

1965

Legendary American folk guitarist, singer and songwriter Bob Dylan released his first top 40 hit single, ‘Subterranean Homesick Blues’ in the U.S.

12

May

1965

English rock band The Rolling Stones recorded their trademark song ‘(I Can’t Get No) Satisfaction’ at RCA’s studio in Hollywood.

17

May

1965

Prolific composer, singer, songwriter, guitarist, producer and founder of industrial rock band Nine Inch Nails, Trent Reznor was born in New Castle, Pennsylvania.

16

June

1965

Legendary American folk singer and guitarist Bob Dylan recorded his classic song, ‘Like A Rolling Stone’ at Columbia studios in New York.

23

June

1965

English guitarist and founding member of rock band Oasis, Paul ‘Bonehead’ Arthurs was born in Manchester.

23

July

1965

British/American guitarist, member of hard rock bands Guns N’ Roses and Velvet Revolver, as well as a successful solo artist, Saul Hudson (a.k.a. Slash) was born in London.

29

July

1965

The full-length film ‘Help!’, featuring a certain English pop quartet, The Beatles, was premiered in London.

6

August

1965

English pop group The Beatles released their 5th studio album, ‘Help!’ in the UK, which was also the soundtrack to their film of the same name.

15

August

1965

English pop band The Beatles broke the (then) record for an audience of 55,600 at Shea Stadium in New York City.

20

August

1965

English rock band The Rolling Stones released their massive hit single, ‘(I Can’t Get No) Satisfaction’.

28

August

1965

Canadian country music singer, songwriter and guitarist, Shania Twain, the ‘Queen of Country Pop’ was born in Windsor, Ontario.

30

August

1965

American folk guitarist, singer and songwriter Bob Dylan released his classic 6th studio album, ‘Highway 61 Revisited’ in the UK.

13

October

1965

English rock band The Who recorded their classic single ‘My Generation’ at Pye Recording Studios in London, UK.

21

October

1965

Pioneering American rock ‘n’ roll bass player, forever associated with singer Elvis Presley, Bill Black died of a brain tumour in Memphis, Tennessee, at the age of 39.

26

October

1965

HM Queen Elizabeth II presented members of the English pop band The Beatles with MBEs at Buckingham Palace in London.

29

October

1965

English rock band, The Who released the single ‘My Generation’ in the UK, reaching number 2 in the British singles chart.

12

November

1965

Emerging young English singer, songwriter and guitarist Marc Bolan performed his first single, ‘The Wizard’ on national UK TV music programme ‘Ready Steady Go!’

12

November

1965

American rock band Velvet Underground performed their debut live performance at Summit High School in New Jersey.

19

November

1965

English guitarist, songwriter and lead man for alternative rock band Spiritualized, Jason Pierce was born in Rugby.

21

November

1965

Avant-garde Icelandic singer, songwriter, producer and actress, Björk Guðmundsdóttir was born in Reykjavík.

25

November

1965

American guitarist, singer, songwriter and producer, a member of punk rock bands Rancid and Transplants, Tim Armstrong was born in Albany, California.

3

December

1965

English pop/rock group The Beatles released their 6th studio album ‘Rubber Soul’ in the UK.

3

December

1965

English rock band, The Who, released their classic debut studio album, ‘My Generation’ in the UK.

10

December

1965

American singer, songwriter and guitarist, front man of alternative rock band Dinosaur Jr., the great J. Mascis was born in Amherst, Massachusetts.

4

March

1966

Member of The Beatles, John Lennon, made his infamously controversial statement that the band was “…more popular than Jesus…”.

18

March

1966

American guitarist and founder of heavy rock band, Alice In Chains, Jerry Cantrell was born in Tacoma, Washington.

25

March

1966

Renowned Canadian blues rock guitarist, Jeff Healey (1966-2008, 41) was born in Toronto.

5

April

1966

American guitarist and co-founder of rock band, Pearl Jam, Mike McCready was born in Pensacola, Florida.

22

April

1966

English garage rock band The Troggs released their version of the Wild Ones’ song, ‘Wild Thing’, which became a classic hit single of its time.

1

May

1966

English pop/rock band, The Beatles performed their final UK live appearance at the NME Poll Winners’ Party, held at the Empire Pool, Wembley in London.

13

May

1966

English rock band, The Rolling Stones released their dark and sinister hit single, ‘Paint It, Black’ from the album ‘Aftermath’ (U.S. release).

16

May

1966

Original American surf pop/rock band, The Beach Boys released their best-selling classic 11th studio album, ‘Pet Sounds’ in the U.S.

16

May

1966

American folk singer, songwriter and guitarist, Bob Dylan originally scheduled the release date of his classic 7th studio double album, ‘Blonde On Blonde’. It didn’t actually become available until early June.

26

May

1966

English pop/rock band, The Beatles recorded ‘Yellow Submarine’ at Abbey Road Studios in London.

30

May

1966

American singer, songwriter, guitarist and co-founder of alternative rock bands Pavement and the Jicks, Stephen Malkmus was born in Santa Monica, California.

16

July

1966

British music icons Eric Clapton, Jack Bruce and Ginger Baker formed the short-lived blues/rock super group Cream.

5

August

1966

English pop/rock group, The Beatles released their classic 7th studio album, ‘Revolver’ in the UK.

20

August

1966

American guitarist, songwriter and founder of heavy metal rock bands Pantera and Damageplan, ‘Dimebag’ Darrell Lance Abbott (1966-2004, 38) was born in Arlington, Texas.

12

September

1966

Featuring an American/British pop-rock band, The Monkees show premiered on American TV network NBC.

20

September

1966

Portuguese/American guitarist, singer, songwriter, producer and member of rock band Extreme, Nuno Bettencourt was born in Terceira, Azores.

23

October

1966

Anglo-American rock trio, The Jimi Hendrix Experience recorded ‘Hey Joe’, their debut single, which peaked at number 6 in the UK chart.

2

November

1966

American blues guitarist Mississippi John Hurt died of a heart attack in a hospital in Grenada, Mississippi at the age of 73.

6

November

1966

American virtuoso rock guitarist, member of rock bands Mr Big and Racer X, as well as successful solo artist, Paul Gilbert was born in Carbondale, Illinois.

17

November

1966

American surf band, The Beach Boys had a number one hit in the UK singles chart with the classic song, ‘Good Vibrations’.

17

November

1966

Talented American singer, songwriter and guitarist, the graceful Mr Jeff Buckley (1966-1997, 30) was born in Orange, California.

25

November

1966

The Jimi Hendrix Experience played their debut live performance in the UK at the Bag O’Nails Club in Soho, London.

7

December

1966

English guitarist and songwriter who has worked with bands Oasis, Beady Eye and Noel Gallagher’s High Flying Birds, Gem Archer was born in Durham.

9

December

1966

English blues/rock super group Cream, comprising Eric Clapton, Jack Bruce and Ginger Baker, released their debut studio album, ‘Fresh Cream’ in the UK.

13

December

1966

Anglo-American rock band The Jimi Hendrix Experience, made their UK TV debut on popular music programme ‘Ready Steady Go!’.

13

December

1966

Anglo-American rock band The Jimi Hendrix Experience recorded their classic track, ‘Foxy Lady’ (a.k.a. ‘Foxey Lady’ in the U.S.), released as a single in May 1967.

16

December

1966

Anglo-American rock band, The Jimi Hendrix Experience released their debut single in the UK, ‘Hey Joe’, reaching no. 6. It failed to chart in the U.S.

23

December

1966

After 3 years on air, UK TV network channel ITV broadcast the final episode of the popular music programme, ‘Ready Steady Go!’ following a Musicians’ Union ban on miming on television.

29

December

1966

Anglo‑American rock trio, The Jimi Hendrix Experience made their first UK TV appearance on the BBC’s ‘Top Of The Pops’, performing their single, ‘Hey Joe’.

4

January

1967

American rock band, The Doors, released their classic self-titled debut studio album, ‘The Doors’.

11

January

1967

Anglo‑American rock trio, The Jimi Hendrix Experience recorded their classic song, ‘Purple Haze’ at De Lane Lea Studios in London. It took 3 takes in 4 hours to complete.

14

January

1967

American heavy metal guitarist, singer and songwriter, founder of heavy metal band Black Label Society, Zakk Wylde was born in New Jersey.

17

January

1967

English rock guitarist, singer, songwriter, producer, solo artist and session musician, Richard Hawley was born in Sheffield.

3

February

1967

Pioneering English record producer and studio engineer, Joe Meek murdered his landlady and then committed suicide in London at the age of 37.

17

February

1967

English Blues rock band John Mayall and the Blues Breakers released their 2nd studio album, ‘A Hard Road’ with Peter Green replacing Eric Clapton as guitarist.

20

February

1967

American singer, songwriter and guitarist with grunge rock band Nirvana, Kurt Cobain (1967-1994, 27) was born in Aberdeen, Washington state.

12

March

1967

American rock band, The Velvet Underground released their debut studio album, ‘The Velvet Underground & Nico’, with iconic cover art by pop artist Andy Warhol.

17

March

1967

American singer, songwriter, guitarist and co-founder of alternative rock band Smashing Pumpkins, Billy Corgan was born in Chicago, Illinois.

12

May

1967

Anglo‑American rock band, The Jimi Hendrix Experience released their debut studio album, ‘Are You Experienced’ in the UK.

29

May

1967

English singer, songwriter and guitarist with rock bands Oasis and High Flying Birds, Noel Gallagher was born in Manchester.

1

June

1967

English pop/rock band, The Beatles released their classic 8th studio album, ‘Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band’ in the UK.

1

June

1967

Aspiring English singer David Bowie released his eponymous debut studio album, ‘David Bowie’ in the UK.

7

June

1967

American guitarist, singer, songwriter and founding member of alternative rock band Jane’s Addiction as well as former member of Red Hot Chili Peppers, Dave Navarro was born in Santa Monica, California.

16

June

1967

The ‘Summer of Love’ officially arrived with the start of the legendary 3-day Monterey Pop Festival in California. Artists included The Animals, Simon & Garfunkel and Sly & The Family Stone.

16

June

1967

English psychedelic/progressive rock band Pink Floyd released their classic single, ‘See Emily Play’, written by Syd Barrett.

17

June

1967

The ‘Summer of Love’ continued with the 2nd day of the 3-day Monterey International Pop Festival in California. Artists included Canned Heat, Jefferson Airplane, Otis Redding, Steve Miller Band and The Byrds.

18

June

1967

The ‘Summer of Love’ continued with the 3rd and final day of the Monterey International Pop Festival in California. Artists included Buffalo Springfield, Grateful Dead, Ravi Shankar, The Jimi Hendrix Experience and The Who.

24

June

1967

German guitarist with Industrial Metal rock band Rammstein, Richard Z. Kruspe was born in Wittenberge.

12

July

1967

Great American guitarist and founding member of heavy rock band Dream Theater, John Petrucci was born in New York.

4

August

1967

English psychedelic progressive rock group, Pink Floyd released their debut studio album, ‘The Piper at the Gates of Dawn’.

25

September

1967

American rock band The Doors released their all-time classic 2nd studio album, ‘Strange Days’.

30

September

1967

English broadcaster the BBC aired their pop music channel Radio 1 for the very first time in the UK. The first record played by DJ Tony Blackburn was, ‘Flowers in the Rain’ by The Move.

3

October

1967

American singer, songwriter and guitarist Woody Guthrie died from Huntington’s Disease in New York City at the age of 55.

9

November

1967

The brainchild of Jann Wenner, the very first issue of Rolling Stone music magazine was published in the USA, featuring a photo of John Lennon on the front cover.

10

November

1967

English blues/rock super group Cream released their classic 2nd studio album, ‘Disraeli Gears’ in the UK.

1

December

1967

Anglo-American rock trio, The Jimi Hendrix Experience released their sophomore studio album, ‘Axis: Bold as Love’ in the UK.

7

December

1967

Shortly before his tragic death, American soul singer Otis Redding recorded his classic single, ‘(Sittin’ On) The Dock Of The Bay’.

10

December

1967

American soul singer, Otis Redding was killed tragically when the plane in which he was travelling crashed into Lake Monona near Madison, Wisconsin, at the age of 26.

16

December

1967

English rock band, The Who, released their 3rd studio album, ‘The Who Sell Out’ in the UK.

27

December

1967

Canadian singer, songwriter and guitarist, Leonard Cohen released his classic debut studio album, ‘Songs of Leonard Cohen’.

13

January

1968

American country music legend Johnny Cash performed two live shows at the notorious Folsom State Prison in California.

21

January

1968

Anglo-American rock trio, The Jimi Hendrix Experience recorded their cover version of Bob Dylan’s, ‘All Along The Watchtower’ at Olympic Studios in London.

30

January

1968

American psychedelic rock band, The Velvet Underground released their classic sophomore studio album, ‘White Light/White Heat’.

8

March

1968

The famous New York live music venue Fillmore East opened its doors at 105 Second Avenue and East 6th Street in Manhattan. It closed 3 years later on 27 June 1971.

6

April

1968

English progressive rock band Pink Floyd announced that guitarist and singer Syd Barrett had left the band he helped to found.

15

April

1968

English guitarist, singer, songwriter and original member of alternative rock band Radiohead, Ed O’Brien was born in Oxford.

20

April

1968

After changing their name from Roundabout, English hard rock band Deep Purple played their first live concert as Deep Purple in Tastrup, Denmark.

24

May

1968

English rock band, Small Faces released their classic 4th studio album ‘Ogdens’ Nut Gone Flake’.

24

May

1968

English rock band, The Rolling Stones released their massive hit single, ‘Jumpin’ Jack Flash’.

28

May

1968

Multi-talented Australian singer, songwriter, actress, entrepreneur and sex symbol, Kylie Minogue was born in Melbourne, Victoria.

5

June

1968

Marc Bolan’s band Tyrannosaurus Rex released their debut album, ‘My People Were Fair And Had Sky In Their Hair… But Now They’re Content To Wear Stars On Their Brows’ in the UK.

15

June

1968

Acclaimed American jazz guitarist Wes Montgomery died of a heart attack at his home in Indianapolis at the age of 45.

28

June

1968

English progressive rock group Pink Floyd released their sophomore studio album, ‘A Saucerful Of Secrets’ in the UK. It was the only Pink Floyd album to feature both Syd Barrett and David Gilmour.

29

June

1968

The first Hyde Park Free Concert was held in London, UK, featuring Pink Floyd, Jethro Tull, Tyrannosaurus Rex and Roy Harper.

5

July

1968

The legendary San Francisco live music venue Fillmore West opened its doors at 10 South Van Ness Avenue. It stayed at this location until 4 July 1971.

10

July

1968

English guitarist Eric Clapton announced that the blues/rock super group Cream were splitting up, after just 3 studio albums.

13

July

1968

Under their original name, Earth, English heavy metal pioneers, Black Sabbath played their first live concert at The Crown pub in Birmingham.

17

July

1968

The unique psychedelic animated film ‘Yellow Submarine’, featuring characters based on The Beatles premiered in London.

5

August

1968

Influential American country guitarist and principal sideman for Johnny Cash, Luther Perkins, one of the famed ‘Tennessee Three’, died tragically in a fire accident in Hendersonville, Tennessee at the age of 40.

9

August

1968

English blues/rock super group Cream released their 3rd studio album, ‘Wheels Of Fire’.

6

September

1968

English blues/rock guitarist Eric Clapton recorded the guitar solo on The Beatles’ song, ‘While My Guitar Gently Weeps’.

7

September

1968

English rock band The New Yardbrids, later to become Led Zeppelin performed their live concert debut at Gladsaxe, near Copenhagen in Denmark.

14

September

1968

The animated series based around a fictional pop band, ‘The Archies’, from the original comic strip, premiered on CBS TV in America.

20

September

1968

English Heavy rock band, Led Zeppelin started recording their ground-breaking debut album ‘Led Zeppelin (I)’ in London, to be released in 1969.

7

October

1968

English singer, songwriter and guitarist with alternative rock band Radiohead, Thom Yorke was born in Wellingborough, Northamptonshire.

14

October

1968

English psychedelic folk rock duo Tyrannosaurus Rex released their 2nd studio album, ‘Prophets, Seers & Sages: The Angels of the Ages’.

25

October

1968

Nine days after its American launch, The Jimi Hendrix Experience released their final studio album ‘Electric Ladyland’ in the UK.

9

November

1968

English hard rock band Led Zeppelin performed their debut London concert at The Roundhouse, Chalk Farm. Members’ tickets cost 16 shillings.

21

November

1968

English bass guitarist and songwriter, principally with Britpop band Blur, Alex James was born in Bournemouth.

22

November

1968

English group, The Beatles released their highly regarded 9th studio double album, ‘The Beatles’, a.k.a. the ‘White Album’ in the UK.

26

November

1968

Aside from their 2005 reunion gigs, English blues/rock super group, Cream played their final ‘Farewell Concert’ at the Royal Albert Hall in London.

29

November

1968

Emerging British/American blues/rock band Fleetwood Mac released their classic instrumental hit single ‘Albatross’.

6

December

1968

British rock band, The Rolling Stones released their classic 7th studio album, ‘Beggars Banquet’ in the UK.

24

December

1968

American blues/rock guitarist, singer, songwriter, producer, prolific musical collaborator as well as solo artist, Doyle Bramhall II was born in Dallas, Texas.

5

January

1969

Controversial American rock singer and songwriter, Brian Warner, better known as the artist Marilyn Manson, was born in Canton, Ohio.

12

January

1969

British rock band Led Zeppelin released their self‑titled debut studio album, ‘Led Zeppelin’ on Atlantic Records in the UK.

13

January

1969

English band The Beatles released their studio album ‘Yellow Submarine’ as a soundtrack to the psychedelic animated film of the same name featuring the Fab Four.

14

January

1969

American singer, songwriter, drummer and guitarist with rock bands Nirvana and Foo Fighters, Dave Grohl was born in Springfield, Virginia.

22

January

1969

Legendary Canadian singer, songwriter and guitarist, Neil Young released his eponymous debut album, ‘Neil Young’.

30

January

1969

English rock band The Beatles made their final live public performance, filming their famous unannounced rooftop gig atop the Apple Studio building in London for the film ‘Let It Be’.

21

February

1969

Welsh singer, songwriter, guitarist and producer with rock band Manic Street Preachers, James Dean Bradfield was born in Pontypool.

22

February

1969

Legendary English pop/rock band The Beatles started recording their classic studio album, ‘Abbey Road’ at the famous London recording studio of the same name.

24

February

1969

Anglo-American rock trio, The Jimi Hendrix Experience performed their final UK live indoor concert at The Royal Albert Hall in London.

12

March

1969

English singer, songwriter, guitarist and founder of indie rock/britpop band Blur, Graham Coxon was born in Rinteln, Germany where his father was stationed with the British Army.

7

April

1969

Legendary Canadian singer, songwriter and guitarist, Leonard Cohen released his classic sophomore studio album, ‘Songs From a Room’.

9

April

1969

American folk rock guitarist, singer and songwriter Bob Dylan released his change of direction 9th studio album, ‘Nashville Skyline’.

13

May

1969

Prolific and inventive American rock guitarist, Buckethead (a.k.a. Brian Carroll) was born in Pomona, California.

14

May

1969

Canadian guitarist, singer and songwriter, Neil Young with his band Crazy Horse released their sophomore studio album, ‘Everybody Knows This Is Nowhere’.

16

May

1969

Before pioneering glam rock, English singer, songwriter and guitarist Marc Bolan with Tyrannosaurus Rex released their 3rd studio album, ‘Unicorn’.

23

May

1969

English rock band, The Who released their ground breaking epic rock opera double album, ‘Tommy’ in the UK.

26

May

1969

John Lennon and Yoko Ono promoted world peace through an 8-day ‘bed-in’ in Canada proclaiming ‘Give Peace a Chance’.

4

June

1969

American country artist Johnny Cash released his classic live album, ‘At San Quentin’, recorded at the (in)famous high security prison in California.

20

June

1969

Emerging English singer David Bowie recorded his first hit single ‘Space Oddity’ at Trident Studios, London.

3

July

1969

English guitarist, multi-instrumentalist and founder of The Rolling Stones, Brian Jones drowned in his swimming pool at his home in Hartfield, East Sussex at the age of 27.

11

July

1969

Emerging English rock singer and songwriter David Bowie released his classic debut single, ‘Space Oddity’ in the UK.

1

August

1969

The point at which aspiring rock band Earth changed their name to Black Sabbath, announced at a concert held at the Pokey Hole Club in Lichfield, Staffordshire, UK.

5

August

1969

American singer and songwriter Iggy Pop launched his long and varied music career, with or without The Stooges, with the release of his/their debut studio album, ‘The Stooges’.

15

August

1969

The legendary hippie counter-culture Woodstock Festival ‘Aquarian Exposition: 3 Days of Peace and Music’ Arts Fair began at Max Yasgur’s dairy farm near Bethel, New York, attended by over 400,000 people. Tickets were priced at $6 per day. Artists included Melanie, Arlo Guthrie and Joan Baez.

16

August

1969

The second day of the legendary Woodstock Festival took place in upstate New York. Artists included Canned Heat, Grateful Dead, Janis Joplin, Sly & the Family Stone, The Who and Jefferson Airplane.

17

August

1969

The third and (sort of) final day of the legendary Woodstock Festival took place on Max Yasgur’s 600-acre farm 43 miles south west of the town of Woodstock, New York state. Artists included Ten Years After, The Band, Johnny Winter, Blood, Sweat & Tears and CSN&Y.

18

August

1969

As the last of 32 acts, American guitar legend, Jimi Hendrix closed the fabled Woodstock Festival by playing a 2-hour set at 9:00 in the morning with a temporary band.

30

August

1969

After changing their name from Earth, English heavy metal pioneers, Black Sabbath played their first live concert as Black Sabbath at a local pub in Workington, Cumbria.

5

September

1969

Talented American guitarist, son of Frank and carrying on the formidable family legacy, Dweezil Zappa was born in Los Angeles, California.

7

September

1969

English guitarist, best known as a member of Britpop group Cast and his work with alternative rock artist Robert Plant, Liam ‘Skin’ Tyson was born in Liverpool.

22

September

1969

Canadian/American roots/folk/country rock artists, The Band released their classic self-titled 2nd studio album, ‘The Band’.

25

September

1969

American guitarist, songwriter, producer and one-time member of rock band Guns N’ Roses (2006-2014), Ron ‘Bumblefoot’ Thal was born in Brooklyn, New York.

26

September

1969

Legendary English pop/rock band The Beatles released their classic final studio album with the iconic zebra crossing cover photograph, ‘Abbey Road’ in the UK.

3

October

1969

Influential American delta blues singer and guitarist Skip James died in Pennsylvania at the age of 67.

10

October

1969

American rock guitarist and composer Frank Zappa released his outstanding, classic career-peak studio album, ‘Hot Rats’.

10

October

1969

English progressive rock band King Crimson released their classic studio album, ‘In the Court of the Crimson King’ in the UK.

16

October

1969

Anglo‑American rock trio the Jimi Hendrix Experience released their 3rd and final studio album, the classic ‘Electric Ladyland’ in the U.S.

18

October

1969

American music family, The Jackson 5 made their debut on American TV, appearing on ABC’s ‘Hollywood Palace’.

22

October

1969

English hard rock group Led Zeppelin released their classic multi-million-selling 2nd studio album, ‘Led Zeppelin II’ on Atlantic Records in the U.S.

28

October

1969

Award-winning multi-genre American guitarist, singer and songwriter Ben Harper was born in Pomona, California.

4

November

1969

English singer and songwriter David Bowie released his 2nd studio album, ‘David Bowie’ (also released as ‘Space Oddity’ after the hit single from the album).

7

November

1969

English progressive rock group, Pink Floyd released their 4th part live, part studio experimental double album, ‘Ummagumma’, with cover art by Hipgnosis.

14

November

1969

Cartoon bubblegum pop group, The Archies began the longest ‘one hit wonder’ UK singles chart-topping streak (8 weeks), with their classic song, ‘Sugar, Sugar’.

27

November

1969

American guitarist, singer and songwriter, a member of heavy rock band Alter Bridge, as well as pursuing many side projects, Myles Kennedy was born in Boston, Massachusetts.

29

November

1969

English rock band, The Rolling Stones, released their classic 11th studio album, ‘Let It Bleed’ in the UK.

6

December

1969

A man was stabbed to death by a member of the Hells Angels during The Rolling Stones set at the infamous Altamont Free Festival in California.

14

December

1969

American music family, The Jackson 5 made their American Network TV debut, appearing on ‘The Ed Sullivan Show’.

Tailpiece

Well there you go… that’s the 1960s in a proverbial (and quite sizeable) nutshell. An appreciation of music genre development and music facts from the 1960s catalogues the seemingly sudden eruption of creativity that took place against the background of momentous global events. The vibrancy and liberalism of the 1960s was exploratory, liberating and empowering for many, mostly young people at the time. Much of the optimistic idealism was, perhaps in hindsight, naively transient and disappointingly ephemeral. All good things come to an end and things were about to change quite fundamentally all over again.

How the heck do you follow the decade of decadence? Well, that will be the fascinating story of the 1970s, which will unfold in all its hedonistic, nihilistic grime and glory. Intrigued? Why not come back for the next enthralling episode of the ‘History of Music’. Until next time…

CRAVE Guitars’ ‘Quote of the Month’: “I’m glad I’m alive. What else would I do?”

© 2019 CRAVE Guitars – Love Vintage Guitars.

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April 2019 – The Story of Modern Music in 1,500+ Facts – Part II

Introduction

Hello and welcome back to the second part of what is turning out to be CRAVE Guitars’ magnum opus for this year. You can revisit Part I by clicking on the link below (it will open in new browser tab):

After posting Part I in March 2019, I realised that the intended approach wasn’t going to work as I’d originally intended, especially as the series would progress. The idea for this year was to present each section in two parts, i) a short narrative setting the general historical context through global political, technological and economic events of the time, and ii) the list of music facts covering the same period. That worked well enough for the first article, which briefly covered 250 years (1650 to 1900) as a precursor to ‘modern’ musical times (from 1900 onwards).

Now… after a bit of reflection, this posed a few problems once we get into the 20th and 21st Centuries, as the number of facts and the historical context expanded in quantity and complexity. Not only this, there was a noticeable disconnect between the context and the musical facts that seemed to leave a hole in the story. While not a huge problem, I wasn’t happy with the result. The course of events needed something additional not only to make the story more coherent but also to become more interesting.

So, as it’s ‘early doors’ in the project, I decided to revisit the deferred piece of research that I was going to publish this year. This brainwave enabled me to adapt that other idea and to combine it with the historical context and musical facts. It isn’t quite what I was thinking of but I reckon it will work quite well. This extensive new piece of work involved documenting the development of relevant musical genres that took place over the same time period as the rest. This move, however, will negate the original idea I had for 2019. Oh well, never mind.

Unfortunately for me, this presented another issue which was to undertake the background work needed for it to make sense and this was on top of the other elements I was already working on. If that was the end of the story, that would be enough. However, it also meant that the length of each section would then not only become too long but also too ‘chunky’. The answer to that is to split the sections into decades, each comprising three parts – historical context, musical genre developments and music facts. That’s where we are this month.

As music is an art not a science, the approach is, to some extent, necessarily arbitrary. In an attempt to avoid repetition, each genre is only covered in the first period when it became popular. As you might expect, history, genres, artists and time periods are not always neatly organised, so there is often overlap and a degree of ‘fuzziness’ around the edges. I hope, however, that the structure is relatively easy to follow and makes some kind of sense.

As previously mentioned, this is not a detailed, comprehensive academic exercise. It is purely for entertainment and each snippet of information barely scratches the tip of the proverbial iceberg. If you want to know more, I’m afraid you’ll have to go and explore where it takes you for yourself.

Finally, before we get started with this month’s part of musical history, I also have to say that the starting point of the series is from the perspective of the guitar and guitar music. If you are reading this, then you probably already appreciate that anyway, however, it does need to be said. This means that, while other aspects of music are covered, it will have a definite and obvious guitar bias. As the author, that’s my prerogative and I’m not apologising for that. Anyway, I hope you enjoy this part of the story because this is where things begin to get enthralling.

The Story of Modern Music Part II  – 1900-1919

Musical Context

This is the new bit of the story added to cement the whole together, so a quick recap is needed.

Popular music of the early 1900s was very different from the predominantly highly structured classical music genres that preceded it. Starting around 1870, the catalyst for the emergent modern styles led to a seemingly miraculous eruption of musical innovation, creativity and experimentation during the 20th Century that was unlike anything that preceded it and probably unlike anything we will see again, at least in our lifetimes. Blues, jazz, gospel and folk were becoming particularly prominent and relevant in the western world.

In order to appreciate where modern music of the 20th Century began, we need to take a brief look at the origins that began to appear in the late 19th Century, even though they were still not necessarily prominent at the turn of the millennium. In these sections it is important to recognise that musical genres did not appear from nothing and neither did they disappear overnight. In addition, many musical genres endured and morphed over decades and many have seen periodical revivals. The categorisation of music into decades for the sake of this article is simply a convenient device to provide a frame of reference within which the ‘facts’ can be readily accommodated. Similarly, genre boundaries and musical styles emanating from particular geographical territories should be seen as fluid and constantly cross‑pollinating, and should not, therefore, be taken as definitive. Where appropriate, relevant notes will be included. Nothing in music, it seems, is simple or straightforward.

1870s

The Blues, or ‘the devil’s music’ is a major musical genre that originated in the Deep South of the United States such as Mississippi, Louisiana and southern Texas from around the 1870s and spread widely across the country changing its style as its popularity increased. Blues really came to prominence at the beginning of the 20th Century. The basis of the blues came predominantly from African American music and traditional African music, as well as European traditional folk music. The genre can be recognised often by repeating chord progressions and commonly a 12‑bar structure. The word ‘blues’ is largely attributed to melancholy, sad or depressed mental states and is often associated with trials and tribulations of post‑slavery black oppression. The development of the blues included work songs, spiritual songs, chants, and ballads. Around 1902, African American musician WC Handy, often called ‘the father of the blues’, heard blues music being played at a railway station and set about promoting the genre through early recordings. Some of the early practitioners of blues include Charlie Patton, Blind Blake, Blind Lemon Jefferson, Mississippi John Hurt, Son House, Robert Johnson, Big Bill Broonzy and Lead Belly, along with many others. Blues music has been highly influential over the last 150 years and its lasting effects can be found widely in jazz as well as later musical genres such as rhythm & blues, rock ‘n’ roll and rock music. Blues has also spawned many sub‑genres including Delta blues, country blues, Piedmont blues, hill country blues, West Coast blues, electric Chicago blues, Texas blues and blues rock.

1890s

While orchestral music remained popular up to the end of the 19th Century, a new breed of music was attracting listeners’ attention. Ragtime emanated from the African American communities of urban cities including St. Louis in Missouri around 1895-1897. Ragtime takes the traditional march musical style that had been made popular by John Philip Sousa and was often played by African American bands. Ragtime incorporated ‘ragged’ syncopated rhythms often reminiscent of polyrhythmic African music. Ragtime became a massively popular form of dance music up to around 1919. Ragtime, along with blues music largely influenced and evolved into Jazz from about 1917. Dance crazes inspired by ragtime became popular with contemporary audiences of the time including the shimmy, the turkey trot, the buzzard lope, the chicken scratch, the monkey glide, and the bunny hug. Predominantly white audiences first encountered the new craze at popular vaudeville shows, with artists soon migrating to the music clubs. Scott Joplin, Joseph Lamb and James Scott are known as the ‘big three’ ragtime composers of their time.

Right, now things are back on track, let’s get going with the early part of the 20th Century.

The 1900s

The 1900s was a decade that heralded not only intense hope for a new millennium but also further leaps of scientific and technological progress.

 Historical Context 1900-1909

1900

Work on the famous New York subway from City Hall to the Bronx began.

1901

The first Nobel Prizes are awarded in Stockholm, Sweden in the fields of physics, chemistry, medicine, literature, and peace.

The Commonwealth of Australia was created.

Hubert Cecil Booth made the world’s first commercial vacuum cleaner.

King Gillette and William Nickerson founded the American Safety Razor Company.

After 63 years on the throne, British monarch Queen Victoria died and was succeeded by King Edward VII.

The first 2000‑mile transatlantic radio message from England to Newfoundland was sent by Italian electrical engineer Guglielmo Marconi.

1902

The Flatiron Building in Manhattan, New York became the world’s tallest at 20 stories and 205 feet tall.

1903

The first powered flight was made by brothers Orville and Wilbur Wright using the first heavier than air powered airplane, the Wright Flyer.

American industrialist and founder of the Ford Motor Company, Henry Ford started mass production of motor cars in America.

The first baseball World Series was held.

1905

Albert Einstein published his ‘Special Theory of Relativity’ proposing the relationship between space and time.

1906

A massive 7.9 (estimated) magnitude earthquake struck California, killing 3,000 people and destroying 80% of San Francisco. The Britain suffragette movement began, aiming to give women the vote.

The first Grand Prix motor race took place at Le Mans in France.

1908

Lord Baden‑Powell founded the Boy Scouts and Girl Guides movement.

The headquarters of the Singer Manufacturing Company in Manhattan reached 47 stories and 612 feet tall.

The American agency, the FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation) was formed.

Ford introduced the massively popular Model T motor car, which sold for $850.

1909

Explorers Robert Peary and Matthew Henson claim to be the first people to reach the North Pole.

Musical Genre Development 1900-1909

Blues music was beginning to spread from the rural areas of the American Deep South and varieties such as hill blues and country blues reflected the social culture of their regional origins. Church music was also prominent in the American Bible belt, as was Anglo‑American folk music with immigrants influencing home grown styles.

Although classical music began to be overtaken rapidly by more modern forms, opera became particularly popular in the early 20th Century and sustained interest until about 1960.

Jazz music, often termed ‘America’s classical music’, is another major musical genre starting from around 1900. Early forms of jazz musical expression emerged mainly from the American south and particularly around the city of New Orleans in Louisiana, often referred to as Dixieland. Jazz stemmed from existing blues, ragtime and European military band music, all of which were popular in the late 19th Century. Musician Buddy Bolden is widely recognised for fusing blues and ragtime to form the basis of jazz. Partly because of these origins, early jazz music was principally performed by African American musicians. Jazz is characterized by ‘swing’ and ‘blue’ notes, call and response patterns, polyrhythmic arrangements and extensive improvisation. Jazz rapidly diversified with forms such as ‘honky‑tonk’, ‘boogie woogie’ and simple jug band music. The main surge in the popularity of jazz music occurred after WWI and particularly from 1920 onwards, known widely as ‘the Jazz Age’. The growth of the jazz craze soon spread to dance halls and speakeasies as well as ubiquitous marching bands. Music and dancing became a significant part of popular jazz culture, including the cakewalk, the black bottom, the Charleston, the lindy hop and the jitterbug. The introduction of recording technology and wireless radio also gave much broader exposure to the exciting new musical genre. Popular jazz artists included Jelly Roll Morton, Louis Armstrong, Bessie Smith and Fats Waller, as well as big band orchestras led by the likes of Duke Ellington, and Count Basie. Jazz rapidly diversified including forms such as Kansas City jazz, gypsy jazz, bebop, cool jazz, free jazz and fusion. Jazz and its many different styles remained hugely popular up to the 1940s and its legacy heavily influenced the proliferation of other musical genres from the early 1950s.

Musical Facts 1901-1909

DayMonthYearMusic Fact
4August1901Legendary American jazz trumpet player, singer and composer, Louis ‘Satchmo’ Armstrong was born in New Orleans, Louisiana.
21March1902Legendary and influential blues guitarist, singer and songwriter, Son House (1902-1988, 86) was born in Lyon, Mississippi.
9June1902Influential delta blues guitarist and singer Skip James (1902-1969, 67) was born in Bentonia, Mississippi.
10October1902American luthier Orville Gibson founded The Gibson Mandolin-Guitar Manufacturing Co. Ltd in Kalamazoo, Michigan, now better known as manufacturer of Gibson guitars.
26June1903American blues singer, songwriter and guitarist, Big Bill Broonzy (1903-1958, 65) was born in Jefferson County, Arkansas.
1March1904American big-band trombone player, arranger, composer, and bandleader Glenn Miller was born in Clarinda, Iowa.
21August1904American jazz pianist, organist, bandleader, and composer Count Basie was born in Red Bank, New Jersey.
19November1905American jazz trombone player, composer, conductor and bandleader, the ‘Sentimental Gentleman of Swing’ Tommy Dorsey was born in Shenandoah, Pennsylvania.
12January1906American country blues singer and guitarist Mississippi Fred McDowell (1906-1972, 66) was born in Rossville, Tennessee.
12November1906American delta blues guitarist and singer Booker T. Washington ‘Bukka’ White (1906 or 1909-1977, 67 or 70) was born between Aberdeen and Houston, Mississippi.
2December1906The inventor of the long playing microgroove record (a.k.a. the LP) for Columbia Records, Peter Carl Goldmark was born in Budapest, Hungary.
29September1907American guitarist, singer, songwriter, actor, rodeo performer and businessman, ‘the singing cowboy’ Gene Autry (1907-1998, 91) was born in Tioga, Texas
26January1908Amazing French virtuoso jazz violinist, known as ‘the grandfather of jazz violinists’ Stéphane Grappelli was born in Paris.
30May1909American jazz clarinet player and bandleader, the ‘King of Swing’, Benny Goodman was born in Chicago, Illinois.
10August1909One of the most significant figures in guitar music history and business, Clarence Leonidas ‘Leo’ Fender (1909-1991, 81) was born in Anaheim, California.
10October1909American businessman, president of guitar manufacturer Gibson and mentor to luthier Paul Reed Smith, the formidable Theodore ‘Ted’ McCarty (1909-2002, 91) was born in Somerset, Kentucky.

The 1910s

The 1910s was a tumultuous decade and one that would leave the world on a watershed, with positive and negative implications for the ones that would follow.

 Historical Context 1910-1919

1911

Norwegian explorer, Roald Amundsen became the first person to reach the South Pole.

The Chinese Revolution led to the formation of the republic of China.

The first Indianapolis 500 motor race took place at Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Indiana.

1912

The so‑called unsinkable ocean liner, the RMS Titanic sank on its maiden transatlantic voyage from Southampton to New York after striking an iceberg, killing over 1,500 passengers and crew.

1913

The first crossword puzzle was published in a Sunday newspaper, the New York World.

1914

The Panama Canal in Central America opened, connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.

The First World War (WWI) started between Germany/Austria and Britain/France/Russia, which lasted until 1918.

1915

A German torpedo sank the British ocean liner Lusitania off the Irish coast, killing nearly 1,200 people.

1916

Albert Einstein published his ‘General Theory of Relativity’ proposing a unified description of gravitation as a geometric property of space and time.

1917

The Russian Bolshevik Revolution took place, led by Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky.

America joined WWI on the side of the Allies.

1918

The British Royal Air Force was founded.

Women over the age of 30 were given the vote in Britain.

A deadly influenza pandemic infected c.500 million people around the world and resulted in the deaths of 50 to 100 million, equivalent to 3-5% of the global population.

The armistice between the Allies and Germany ended WWI. Approximately 17 million people were killed during the conflict.

1919

The infamous Chicago Black Sox baseball match fixing scandal, when 8 members of the White Sox were accused of intentionally losing the World Series to Cincinnati for money from a gambling syndicate.

The Grand Canyon National Park in Arizona was created.

After WWI, the League of Nations was established, intended to ensure world peace, lasting until it was abandoned in 1946.

Musical Genre Development 1910-1919

By 1910, blues music was migrating into urban areas and would have a major influence on all forms of music. Jazz particularly New Orleans Jazz maintained its popularity during the 1910s. Religion was of great solace to the oppressed black communities of southern USA and unaccompanied singing of spirituals grew in popularity, eventually morphing into gospel by the 1930s. Social development in America and particularly Europe during the 1910s was heavily impacted by World War I. In the absence of technological music distribution, the ‘new’ music from the previous decade continued to spread and it maintained its influence during the 1910s. As a consequence, no major genre styles appeared before the boom period of the post‑war ‘roaring twenties’. Recordings of Afro‑Caribbean calypso music began to appear in the 1910s, which proved not only popular but also influential.

Musical Facts 1910-1919

DayMonthYearMusic Fact
23January1910Belgian/French virtuoso gypsy jazz guitarist, Django Reinhardt (1910-1953, 43) was born in Liberchies, Pont‑à‑Celles, Belgium.
28May1910Influential American blues guitarist, singer and songwriter T-Bone Walker (1910-1975, 64) was born in Linden, Texas.
10June1910Legendary blues American guitarist and singer Howlin’ Wolf (real name, Chester Burnett) (1910-1976, 65) was born in White Station, Mississippi.
8May1911Legendary American blues guitarist, singer and songwriter, Robert Johnson (1911-1938, 27) was born in Hazlehurst, Mississippi.
5November1911American singer, guitarist and popular Western film actor, known as the ‘King of the Cowboys’ Roy Rogers (1911‑1998, 86) was born in Cincinnati, Ohio.
15March1912American country blues singer, songwriter and guitar legend, Sam ‘Lightnin’ Hopkins (may be 1911 or 1912‑1982, 69) was born in Centreville, Texas.
14July1912Legendary and influential American folk singer, songwriter and guitarist, Woody Guthrie (1912‑1967, 55) was born in Okemah, Oklahoma.
4April1913Legendary American Chicago blues guitarist, Muddy Waters a.k.a. McKinley Morganfield, (1913-1983, 70) was born in Issaquena County, Mississippi.
7August1913American pioneer of the 7-string jazz guitar, long before its current popularity in modern rock music, George Van Eps (1913-1998, 85) was born in Plainfield, New Jersey.
22November1913Famous English classical composer, conductor and pianist Benjamin Britten was born in Lowestoft, Suffolk.
20March1915Influential American gospel singer, songwriter and guitarist, Sister Rosetta Tharpe (1915-1973, 58) was born in Cotton Plant, Arkansas.
7April1915Legendary American singer Billie Holiday was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, She is widely recognised as one of the greatest jazz singers of all time.
9June1915True American guitar legend and musical innovator, the incomparable Les Paul, a.k.a. Lester William Polsfuss (1915-2009, 84) was born in Waukesha, Wisconsin.
1July1915Influential American blues singer, songwriter, upright bass player and guitarist, Willie Dixon (1915-1992, 75) was born in Vicksburg, Mississippi.
29July1916Highly influential American jazz guitarist, Charlie Christian (1916-1942, 25) was born in Bonham, Texas.
12March1917American record producer and co-founder of Chess Records in Chicago, famous for pioneering blues and rock ‘n’ roll artists, Leonard Chess was born in Motal, Poland.
7June1917American singer, actor, comedian, and producer Dean Martin was born in Steubenville, Ohio.
22August1917Massively influential American blues guitarist, singer and songwriter, an all-time great music man, John Lee Hooker (1917-2001, 83) was born in Tutwiler, Tallahatchie County, Mississippi.
30September1917Legendary American jazz drummer and band leader Buddy Rich was born in Brooklyn, New York.
21October1917American jazz trumpeter, bandleader, composer, and singer Dizzie Gillespie was born in Cheraw, South Carolina.
17November1917Influential American country singer, songwriter and guitarist, Merle Travis (1917-1983, 65) was born in Rosewood, Kentucky.
27January1918American blues guitarist, the ‘king of the slide guitar’, Elmore James (1918-1963, 45) was born in Richland, Mississippi.
25April1918Renowned American jazz singer, known as the ‘First Lady of Song’ and the ‘Queen of Jazz’, Ella Fitzgerald was born in Newport News, Virginia.
19August1918Pioneering American luthier, Orville H. Gibson, founder of Gibson guitars, died in a New York hospital at the age of 62.

Tailpiece

OK, there you have it for this month’s article and we’ve only covered two decades! But, what influential decades they were. Things are just starting to hot up and there is still plenty to look forward to over coming months. Music and world events begin to get even more complicated and quite exciting from here on in. I’m not sure how many months this series will last, so we’ll just have to take things as they come.

In the background, the repatriation project is ongoing at an intentionally slow pace with about 3‑4 guitars a month attracting some much deserved tender loving care and attention. Also, the ‘most wanted’ vintage gear hunt is still underway but with no desperate urgency, as there is plenty else to be getting on with. Also, the postponed and much‑needed cellar renovation (i.e. future guitar accommodation) may begin to get underway by mid‑year. So, lots of fun and games to be had if at all possible. Until next time…

CRAVE Guitars ‘Quote of the Month’: “Intelligence is not about what you know or how much you know but about having the curiosity to ask ‘why?’”

© 2019 CRAVE Guitars – Love Vintage Guitars.

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